Questions tagged [canon]

A biblical canon is a list of books considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular religious community.

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Do the “Anathemas” Pronounced in the Council of Trent still stand today?

My understanding, is that in response to the protestant reformation, Luther in particular, the Catholic Church convened the council of Trent, and put their official doctrines on the issues into ...
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When did the idea of a scriptural “canon” originate?

This question What are the biblical arguments that the Bible canon is NOT closed? made me wonder: 1) When did the idea of a canon originate? I would suppose this should be quite early, and Jews ...
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Harmony in the pseudepigraphal writings?

It is not uncommon when talking to someone about the authenticity or composition of the Biblical canon to for the subject of the so-called "lost" gospels to be brought up. An explanation of the ...
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Is there something in Sirach that caused it to be considered Apocrypha?

My limited research on the topic suggests the only reason Sirach (or Ecclesiasticus or Ben Sira, etc.) was put in the Apocrypha was because the Jewish canon excluded it. As for why the Jewish canon ...
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Why was Hebrews included in the canon?

Was Hebrews included in the canon solely because it was assumed to be authored by Paul, or was there any other basis for its canonization?
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What are the biblical arguments that the Bible canon is NOT closed?

Related: What are the biblical arguments that the Bible canon is closed? Most people are familiar with the warning in the Book of Revelation: "And if any man shall take away from the words of the ...
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What was the New Testament in the ancient Church of the East?

Which books functioned as the New Testament in the ancient Church of the East? For example, what would they have been in Mongolia in the days of Genghis Khan? The books of the Catholic and Protestant ...
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Were the Gospels considered Scripture when the rest of the New Testament was written?

When the New Testament was written1, were the books of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John already considered Scripture? 1 Acts - Revelation. Obviously there is overlap in when these were written (they are ...
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Are there any Christians who only accept the gospels?

Have there ever been historically, or now, Christians who have only accepted either the Gospels, just one of them, or a synthesis/redaction of the four Gospels as being truly inspired or in some other ...
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According to Reformed Theology, why did the 70 Jewish translators include the Apocrypha?

I read at carm.org: Paul tells us that the Jews were entrusted with the oracles of God. This means that they are the ones who understood what inspired Scriptures were, and they never accepted ...
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What record is there of a canon of Scripture having been set at the First Ecumenical Council?

According to this synopsis As to Judith, he notes that the Council of Nicæa had, contrary to the Hebrew tradition, included it in the Canon of Scripture, and this, with his friends’ requests, had ...
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Is the Catholic canonized Bible closed?

Traditionally most Christians hold that the Biblical Canon has been closed because of the end of the Apostolic era. But if the Pope speaks from "Ex Cathedra", isn't that stating his teaching is ...
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Why do Protestants trust what Paul and Luke wrote 100%?

This has always been a big question for me. I can understand that many Christians believe there is good evidence for the resurrection of Jesus, and that gives a basis for their faith in the teaching ...
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Why was Ezra included in the canon? [closed]

As a Christian, I know we shouldn't have a "canon within the canon", but I'll admit, I just can't get worked up over Ezra. I love Malachi. I could for a long time on 2 Peter. I can even find stuff ...
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What are the strongest arguments for the belief that the Bible was supernaturally inspired by God?

Simple question: How do Christians who believe that the Bible was supernaturally inspired by God justify their position? What are the strongest arguments for the belief that the Bible is the inspired ...
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Was defining the New Testament originally condemned as heresy?

This BBC documentary describes how during the first two centuries, scriptures about Jesus circulated without any author mentioned in them. It then goes on to suggest that actually writing down a New ...
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Are there books that are included in the Protestant Bible that were disputed as canonical?

The topic of how the Bible was compiled, including the determining factors for which books are included is well-documented. There were some basic criteria as listed at http://gracethrufaith.com/ask-a-...
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Does the Catholic church consider Mark 16:9-20 to be biblical canon?

Many (but not all) scholars assert that Mark 16:9-20 was not present in the earliest manuscripts, and that instead it was added by later copyists. Does the Catholic Church consider these verses to be ...
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When the early church was formalising the canon, what did they understand by the word 'Inspired'?

When the early church was formalising the Biblical canon, what specific definition of the word 'inspired' did they have in regard to the biblical literature? I'm curious about how this relates to the ...
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Why do Protestants accept the inerrancy of the canon, while rejecting other decisions of the Roman Church?

Why do Protestants accept the inerrancy of the current canon of scripture but reject many of the other decisions made by the Roman Church at the time the Bible was being canonized? Take the Council ...
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Could there be a “Newer” Testament? If so, how would it become canonical?

Could there possibly ever be a new set of books added to the Bible which have modern stories and rules for future generations? Such as a book describing internet etiquette - which isn't so far out of ...
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When scripture quotes a non-biblical source, without any opposition of the source, does it imply any endorsement?

In addition to alluding to various Jewish proverbs, sayings, and parables, sometimes the Bible seems to directly quote Greek philosophers (Acts 17:28), Jewish oral traditions (Jude 9, 12) or possibly ...
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What books did Calvin consider canonical?

Sometimes it seems that much is made of Calvin's collections of commentaries and sermons not including certain books that are in the Protestant canon (Ruth, Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, ...
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Why were none of the Apostolic fathers' writings included in the last canon accepted in the Ecumenical Councils?

Why is it so that none of the Apostolic fathers' writings was included in the last canon accepted during the time of the Seven Ecumenical Councils? By the "last canon" I mean the one that we have ...
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Were the councils of the 4th and 5th centuries primarily to deal with Apocryphal writings?

Were the Apocryphal writings the primary motivation behind the cannons and councils of the 4th and 5th centuries or were there other motivations? Did the ancient church leaders cite their reasons for ...
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How is it that Georgian Orthodox Church are in full communion with the Eastern Orthodox Church when they have a different biblical canon?

There is a table on this wikipedia page which indicates that the Georgian Orthodox Church accepts 2 Esdras 3–14 (4 Ezra) and 4 Maccabees as part of their biblical canon, whereas the rest of the ...
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Why do 21st century Protestants still not include the deuterocanonical books in the canon?

Given the Protestant motto semper reformanda and the doctrine of sola scriptura which in essence strives to purify Christian teaching to be based only on the Word of God interpreted through the lens ...
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Sources on Historical Reliability of the New Testament [closed]

Unlike many of the other great religions of the world - Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, even Judaism to some extent - Christianity is founded not on a philosophy or a metaphysical idea, but on an ...
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Do any Protestant denominations organize a canon starting from a collection of books other than the Roman Catholic Church's canon?

It is my understanding that most Protestant groups recognise a 66 book canon which is entirely a subset of the Roman Catholic canon and which was developed by removing the so-called apocrypha from the ...
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What is the Orthodox canon?

What books does the Orthodox Bible contain? Additionally, when was this settled (if it is settled) and how was it decided?
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Where is it documented that some people didn't want Gospel of John to be included as canonical?

I have heard in some debates that the Gospel of John had some push back from people (Church Fathers?) from being included into the Canon. Can someone shed some light on this topic? Or provide a book ...
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Did the mention of Simon Magnus contribute to Acts of Peter not being part of the New Testament?

The Acts of Peter is a Apocryphal book about the Apostle Peter after he moves to Rome. It seems to talk about Simon Magnus a good deal. I am interested as to whether that is one of the reasons it was ...
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Was the 66 book Bible being used by early Christians?

Referring to the most widely used Protestant canon of exactly (and only) the content of these 66 books.
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When did the insertion of title-page for Old Testament and New Testament started?

All the Bible I have seen have title-pages for both New Testament and Old Testament. There is always a dedicated page just before the Book of Genesis with the title "The Old Testament" which indicates ...
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Did any ancient source believe in more than four gospels?

I'm listening to a lecture series by Dale Martin (Professor of Religious Studies, Yale), and he makes the passing claim that during development of the New Testament canon there were some who thought ...
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Why did Swedenborg accept any New Testament books?

Based on this question we see that Swedenborg denied most of the New Testament as being divinely inspired. Swedenborg did not reject the rest of the books of the Protestant Bible. He considered ...
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Why isn't the Book of 1 (Ethiopic) Enoch considered canon for the LDS Church?

Recently, I have been reading apocryphal and pseudepigraphical texts, and like many before me, I am struck by the extremely specific similarities between 1 Enoch and the LDS's Book of Moses. I flipped ...
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Do Anglicans believe the decision on the 66 book canon was infallible?

Do Anglicans believe that the decision taken on the 66 book canon was an infallible decision? (like the attitude the Catholic Church has to the definition of the Canon in the Council of Trent). If so,...
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What biblical canon do Eastern Catholic Churches use? [duplicate]

The Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church use slightly different biblical canons: Books of the Bible (Wikipedia). Notably, the Orthodox Church uses 3 Maccabees and 4 Maccabees while the ...
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Does specific authorship of a given book of the Bible “matter”? [closed]

Based on a variety of previous questions, it seems that specific authorship of many parts of the Bible are not known for sure. For example (though I realize there are traditions of who wrote what): ...
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What is the evidence that the New Testament authors believed, or did not believe, that they were writing an inspired record?

The term "canon" is used to describe the collection of books that are considered by Christians to be divinely inspired, and therefore to belong in the Bible. (See: How and when was the canon of the ...
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Two Editions of Pelikan's “Whose Bible Is It?”

Yaroslav Pelikan's final book "Whose Bible Is It?" has two editions. The first edition came out in 2005 and was sub-titled "A History of the Scriptures Through the Ages." The second edition came out ...
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What are the Gnostic Gospels and why are they not part of the Bible? [duplicate]

Lately, I have been hearing a lot about the Gnostic Gospels and their more (relatively) unorthodox references to Jesus and a believers relationship to God. What are the Gnostic Gospels and why are ...
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Why haven't we revised the Bible in centuries? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: What are the biblical arguments that the Bible canon is closed? Preface: This question is not directed at a specific denomination. Why haven't we revised the Bible in ...
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On what basis do Catholics continue doctrinal development after the Bible canon was closed?

On what basis do Catholics continue doctrinal development after the Bible canon was closed?
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What is the Authenticity of Bible? [closed]

I have heard many arguments and debates on the authenticity of bible. But everyone involved was just putting forward his or her own opinions/suggestions. I would like to know a little more about this ...
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How many books of the bible agreed on any Christian denomination?

How many books of the bible (includes the new testament) considered to be agreed on all denominations / movements? What are the basic books that considered holy for all?
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Is the Book of Enoch authentic? [closed]

I grew up reading the Holy Bible which portrays God as a loving Father, full of compassion and goodwill for mankind. However, after reading the Book of Enoch, I am perplexed at the way heaven and God ...
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What denominations consider Apocrypha to be heretical?

Over several years I have asked several pastors and preachers of differing denominations to comment on some books considered to be Apocrypha. Most generally my question was ignored, but on a couple of ...
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What books are in a modern Peshitta?

I'm looking to buy a copy of the Peshitta so that I can learn Syriac, but I understand that it has gradually changed throughout history. The antilogemmon were excluded for the first 500 years or so ...