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Questions tagged [atonement]

Questions regarding Christian atonement which describes how human beings can be reconciled to God.

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Did Jesus die only for the Church in the Governmental theory of atonement?

I was just reading the Wikipedia article about it and one of its characteristics is: Unlimited scope of the substitution: According to governmental theory, Christ's death applies not to individuals ...
baggypants_onsale's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
216 views

St. Anselm in Eastern Orthodoxy

Is Anselm of Canterbury venerated by the Eastern Orthodox Church, or is he accepted as a saint only by the Western churches? Similarly, is his Satisfaction Theory of atonement accepted at large within ...
DdV's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
292 views

What is the perspective of Emanuel Swedenborg and the New Church (Swedenborgian) on Christ's death and resurrection. Does Jesus' blood cover sin?

I have spent time on the website Spiritual Insights for Everyday Life, by Lee & Annette Woofenden, which has articles about some of this information but I cannot find what seems to be a sufficient ...
SWEDENBORGS's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
20 views

How does the Church of East view the Passion of Christ?

What is the understanding of the (Assyrian or Ancient) Church of the East on the Passion, considering their unique Christological doctrine? Do they believe that God suffered on the cross?
Terjij Kassal's user avatar
2 votes
4 answers
278 views

Why did Jesus ask His disciples to forgive the debt of their debtors (if they want their debt to be forgiven), if Jesus's atonement is universal? [closed]

In the Lord's Prayer (Matthew 6) Jesus Christ teaches His disciples how to pray and encourages them to "Forgive the Debt of Others" if they want "Their Own Debt to be Forgiven". ...
Dan Bogdan's user avatar
4 votes
11 answers
3k views

If flour seems to be accepted as sin offering/atonement, then why is blood needed?

If you cannot afford two doves or two pigeons, you shall bring two pounds of flour as a sin offering. You shall not put any olive oil or any incense on it, because it is a sin offering, not a grain ...
VNPython's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
75 views

Whom or what did Azazel signify in the Old Testament?

We read of the name Azazel on three occasions in the OT: Lev 16:8 and Aaron shall cast lots on the two goats, one lot for the Lord and the other lot for Azazel. Leviticus 16:10 but the goat on ...
Kadalikatt Joseph Sibichan's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
1k views

Is Jesus atoned for us?

The third stanza of the hymn The Breaking Of Bread states the following (emphasis added): Our Savior now doth reign in heav’n above; death's power he overcame, such matchless love; to heav’n he did ...
The Editor's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
80 views

When (and by whom) did the term 'substitionary atonement' become widely used?

I was very surprised when I entered the words 'substitutionary atonement' into the Google Ngram Viewer and produced the graph below. The graph shows usage in literature from 1600 to 2019. This reports ...
Nigel J's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
240 views

Which lamb in the Old Testament is Jesus equated to?

We see Jesus being referred to as the Lamb of God, on many occasions. John the Baptist calls him the Lamb of God who takes away of the sins of the world (Jn 1:29). St. Paul refers to him as the lamb ...
Kadalikatt Joseph Sibichan's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
78 views

According to Catholic Scholars, what did the original text of Agnus Dei read as?

We read in Leviticus 16: 7-10 : He shall take the two goats and set them before the Lord at the entrance of the tent of meeting; and Aaron shall cast lots on the two goats, one lot for the Lord and ...
Kadalikatt Joseph Sibichan's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
271 views

Does LDS doctrine explicitly emphasize the atonement in Gethsemane?

After reading the atonement section on the LDS website, my understanding is that the atonement of Christ was not exclusively fulfilled in the Garden of Gethsemane, but was also partially fulfilled ...
springworks00's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
150 views

Why might have God confined his atonement to only the Israelites?

I am trying to avoid getting struck down as opinion based by asking for POTENTIAL answers here. If you think my question can be rephrased in a non-opinion based way, feel free to edit. In the Old ...
Luke Hill's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
121 views

What is the Lutheran view of he atonement of Christ on the cross?

According to Lutheran teachings (Martin Luther, Lutheran confessions, any Lutheran Church, Lutheran theologians, etc.), why did Jesus Christ had to die on the cross, and what did this accomplished?
Dan's user avatar
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4 votes
7 answers
967 views

For those who believe there was no historical Adam and Eve, how does Christianity make sense?

How can Christianity make sense without a literal Adam and Eve? I have heard many Christians (particularly Catholics) try and be conciliatory with modern science by claiming that Adam and Eve were not ...
Joa's user avatar
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-1 votes
0 answers
32 views

What is the Biblical Basis for the belief that Christ's death was not for everyone (The notion called Limited Atonement)? [duplicate]

Im not asking for an overview of different denominations' views, but rather scriptural evidence for the view held by Calvinists that Christ's death was not for everyone. I'm very familiar with alleged ...
Tennman7's user avatar
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1 vote
5 answers
2k views

What is the biblical basis for defining 'atonement’ as 'at-one-ment with Christ'?

I’m looking for answers from Protestant Trinitarians as this seems to be a fairly recent explanation, currently in vogue in some groups (mainly evangelical, I would suppose). The basis for my query is ...
Anne's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
193 views

When was the term 'substitutionary atonement' first coined and what was the reason for the choice of the 2 words?

The term 'substitutionary atonement' has been used within Trinitarian, Protestant, Reformed Baptist circles for some time, and it is those I wish to examine in this question. But the word 'substitute' ...
Nigel J's user avatar
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2 votes
3 answers
403 views

Did God accept a sacrifice that was against His own law?

I am seeking a biblical answer to the following objection: "Since God clearly prohibited human sacrifices in the Pentateuch, why would He choose to atone for the sins of humanity seemingly in the ...
hirohe's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
481 views

How does Catholicism biblically defend purgatory in a way that upholds the sufficiency of Christ's work?

Below is a quote from an answer to this question "What is the basis of the teaching that souls in purgatory can intercede for the living?: The (Catholic) Church refers to the souls in purgatory ...
Mike Borden's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
30 views

Why is the sacrifice of Jesus needed for the atonement of sins? [duplicate]

Christianity teaches that Jesus was crucified in order that ours sins be forgiven, and without this sacrifice then atonement could not be attained. Why did Jesus have to die for our sins in order for ...
RandomUser's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
595 views

On what basis was Jesus’ death sufficient for redemption according Non-Trinitarians who maintain that Jesus was not eternal God as God the Father is?

To Peter Turner’s point A) Scripture is the source that says blood was necessary and that blood was sufficient, question revolves around why a Non-Trinitarian Jesus has sufficient worth to save ...
Autodidact's user avatar
  • 1,123
2 votes
1 answer
305 views

What was the dominant theory of atonement shown in the Apostolic Fathers's writings?

Most articles I read about the theory of atonement in the early church say that Ransom Theory was the prevailing one, although some disagree. This thinking was promoted by a landmark book on the ...
GratefulDisciple's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
179 views

Why do Christians believe Christ's death applies to future sins? [closed]

One of the points that different Christian denominations and movements generally agree on is that Christ died on the cross to atone for our sins, and his death was the ultimate sacrifice. This ...
mttpgn's user avatar
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2 votes
3 answers
729 views

Did Jesus die for all? Is “for many” the same meaning as “for all “ in Matthew 26:28?

In Matthew 26, Jesus said, Matthew 26:28: For this is my blood of the new testament, which shall be shed for many unto remission of sins. And In Isaiah, please take note the word “many” Isaiah 53:...
Kaylee A's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
1k views

Did Jesus defend himself at his trial?

Jesus's prayer in the garden, where he asks God for this cup to pass from him, seems to imply that Jesus did not want to die. In the gospel of John, Jesus gives a defence to Pilate, "My kingdom is not ...
matt2048's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
3k views

What is the dominant theory of atonement in Catholic theology?

Having a little trouble phrasing the question due to my own ignorance. I grew up celebrating Christmas and Hanukah as basically family gift giving events, as many others do, and I'm trying in ...
Clark Radford's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
64 views

Biblical justification of the salvation theory of Christ's death presented by Paul

What are the origins / biblical references to justify the doctrine that Christ's death on the cross saved us from our sins? From my understanding the majority of biblical passages referring to ...
WolfgangP's user avatar
  • 273
-1 votes
2 answers
122 views

What effects do Christ's passion and resurrection have on us right now?

According to Christianity Christ "died on the cross to save us from our sins". I would like to get a better understanding of the origins and mechanics of this doctrine. Christ died for our sins, as ...
WolfgangP's user avatar
  • 273
4 votes
1 answer
264 views

The New Perspective on Paul and the Christ Followers Self Understanding

This is mostly a set of questions that are being asked of Protestant Christians, particularly those that hold to the "New Perspective on Paul." I have really enjoyed the work of modern "New ...
Corey Pacillo's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
303 views

Atonement in Eastern Orthodoxy

The mainline protestant idea of Atonement is, as Luther himself put it, this: Jesus Christ, our God and Lord, died for our sins and was raised again for our justification (Romans 3:24–25). He ...
Dan's user avatar
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2 votes
3 answers
2k views

Can someone atone for the sins of another, in the life after death, if they asked this grace from Our Lord before their own death in this life?

At 1 Peter 2:24 we read: " He himself bore our sins in his body on the cross, so that, free from sins, we might live for righteousness; by his wounds you have been healed. " Of course, one would be ...
Kadalikatt Joseph Sibichan's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
173 views

At what age could a man start bringing offerings for sin in ancient Israel to the priest?

I just want to know if the scriptures or another source specify if little children or young man could offer sacrifices. Or if there was a minimum age for it. Only men? Grown up, men?
Liz Castillo's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
382 views

Calvinists: How to avoid justification from eternity?

I'm having trouble understanding how Calvinists avoid the doctrine of justification from eternity, which roughly states that the elect are justified either before the creation of the world or at the ...
pr871's user avatar
  • 397
1 vote
1 answer
304 views

How is the atonement sufficient for salvation according to Calvinists?

Because there is not a single verse in the Bible that explicitly states that Christ laid down his life only for believers (the elect), Calvinists typically defend their doctrine of limited atonement ...
pr871's user avatar
  • 397
4 votes
2 answers
561 views

(LDS) What kind of payment can a murderer make to receive a pardon?

Related to this other question about whether murder is unforgivable according to the LDS Church. One of the answers to the question says that: Murder is a very serious sin, and while it can't be ...
Dee's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
101 views

How would a Reformed theologian distinguish his or her view of atonement?

The term 'limited atonement' has been used, and I wonder how the Reformed is differing by definition from the Evangelical view of atonement. Further, what Scriptures do the Reformed base this view ...
MutluAnne's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
455 views

In which writings does Tertullian apply the concept of satisfaction to salvation?

Everett Ferguson, in Church History, I.21.IV, cites Tertullian (d. ~240) as a proto-satisfaction theory of atonement thinker: The sacrificial or satisfaction theory had an initial statement by ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
9 votes
2 answers
258 views

Is the validity of the ransom contingent on Jesus being God?

In discussing the trinity, I've often heard people say that "only God could perform the ransom" or that "only the creator of life could defeat death." What is the basis for these claims? To give some ...
user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
2k views

How does the Catholic Church view Penal Substitutionary Atonement?

How does the Catholic Church view Penal Substitutionary Atonement (as formulated within the Reformed tradition)? A comment on this question, states that PSA 'has been declared doctrinal heresy'. Is ...
bradimus's user avatar
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12 votes
7 answers
579 views

What is the biblical basis for the belief that Jesus' death made satisfaction for individual sins?

Among evangelical Protestants, especially, but also in various other quarters of Christianity, it is common to believe that "Jesus died for me" in the sense that Jesus' death made satisfaction for (in ...
Lee Woofenden's user avatar
7 votes
4 answers
323 views

What is the earliest reference to the notion that we killed Jesus?

In this blog post, Catholic professor Edward Feser discusses the Crucifixion: No silly talk here of “Flying Spaghetti Monsters” and the like; Nietzsche, unlike so many of his successors, still had ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
179 views

Is God the Son's blood divine and infinite or human and finite (Western Catholic)

This question is related to Is God the Son's blood divine and infinite or human and finite (Protestant interpretation), but I didn't realize there may be different interpretations. My question ...
Cannabijoy's user avatar
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1 vote
3 answers
972 views

Is God the Son's blood divine and infinite or human and finite (Protestant interpretation)

Something I hear a lot is "Jesus has to be God because it took an infinite sacrifice to appease the infinite anger of an infinite God", or something like that. My question concerns whether God the ...
Cannabijoy's user avatar
  • 2,492
2 votes
0 answers
77 views

How and when did the penal substitutionary view become popular? How popular today is it? [closed]

It seems very popular among evangelicals today, is it the main theory? Do other Christians generally support this view, and have they supported it historically? Does it have historical support in the ...
Fred Oakman's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
507 views

Do Lutherans define Justification and Atonement as different things?

I was considering the doctrine of Lutheran Unlimited/Universal Atonement, which says Christ died for everyone's sins. However, the fact stands that not all people go to heaven – thus not all people's ...
Jess L's user avatar
  • 616
10 votes
1 answer
305 views

Did Philip Melanchthon teach penal substitution?

This question is a follow-up to my question, "Did Martin Luther teach penal substitution?" The Wikipedia article on Philip Melanchthon states in its opening paragraphs: Philip Melanchthon . ...
Lee Woofenden's user avatar
8 votes
2 answers
2k views

Did Martin Luther teach penal substitution?

The Wikipedia article on Penal Substitution states (under the heading "Differing views"): Critics, however, argue that the theory of penal substitution is solely a later development, only forming ...
Lee Woofenden's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
544 views

Is there an established concensus meaning of Vicarious Atonement?

The term "Vicarious Atonement" is often used to refer to, or to something described as similar to, Penal Substitution or other understandings of Substitutionary atonement: The phrase 'vicarious ...
Joshua's user avatar
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11 votes
2 answers
399 views

According to proponents of penal substitutionary atonement, why do we still die?

According to the theory of atonement known as penal substitution, the sin of a person is atoned for by the work of Jesus – he paid the penalty for the sin himself when he died, satisfying the ...
Andrew's user avatar
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