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Questions tagged [atonement]

Questions regarding Christian atonement which describes how human beings can be reconciled to God.

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How do you, Lutherans, understand the question of soteriology: atonement

English is not my native language, sorry for any typing errors I'm studying soteriology and wanted to understand how you Lutherans understand the question of soteriology? Justification and atonement: ...
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How do you, Lutherans, understand the question of soteriology?

English is not my native language, sorry for any typing errors I'm studying soteriology and wanted to understand how you Lutherans understand the question of soteriology? Human will: total depravity ...
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The New Perspective on Paul and the Christ Followers Self Understanding

This is mostly a set of questions that are being asked of Protestant Christians, particularly those that hold to the "New Perspective on Paul." I have really enjoyed the work of modern "New ...
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Atonement in Eastern Orthodoxy

The mainline protestant idea of Atonement is, as Luther himself put it, this: Jesus Christ, our God and Lord, died for our sins and was raised again for our justification (Romans 3:24–25). He ...
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Can someone atone for the sins of another, in the life after death, if they asked this grace from Our Lord before their own death in this life?

At 1 Peter 2:24 we read: " He himself bore our sins in his body on the cross, so that, free from sins, we might live for righteousness; by his wounds you have been healed. " Of course, one would be ...
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At what age could a man start bringing offerings for sin in ancient Israel to the priest?

I just want to know if the scriptures or another source specify if little children or young man could offer sacrifices. Or if there was a minimum age for it. Only men? Grown up, men?
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Calvinists: How to avoid justification from eternity?

I'm having trouble understanding how Calvinists avoid the doctrine of justification from eternity, which roughly states that the elect are justified either before the creation of the world or at the ...
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How is the atonement sufficient for salvation according to Calvinists?

Because there is not a single verse in the Bible that explicitly states that Christ laid down his life only for believers (the elect), Calvinists typically defend their doctrine of limited atonement ...
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(LDS) What kind of payment can a murderer make to receive a pardon?

Related to this other question about whether murder is unforgivable according to the LDS Church. One of the answers to the question says that: Murder is a very serious sin, and while it can't be ...
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How would a Reformed theologian distinguish his or her view of atonement?

The term 'limited atonement' has been used, and I wonder how the Reformed is differing by definition from the Evangelical view of atonement. Further, what Scriptures do the Reformed base this view ...
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In which writings does Tertullian apply the concept of satisfaction to salvation?

Everett Ferguson, in Church History, I.21.IV, cites Tertullian (d. ~240) as a proto-satisfaction theory of atonement thinker: The sacrificial or satisfaction theory had an initial statement by ...
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Is the validity of the ransom contingent on Jesus being God?

In discussing the trinity, I've often heard people say that "only God could perform the ransom" or that "only the creator of life could defeat death." What is the basis for these claims? To give some ...
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How does the Catholic Church view Penal Substitutionary Atonement?

How does the Catholic Church view Penal Substitutionary Atonement (as formulated within the Reformed tradition)? A comment on this question, states that PSA 'has been declared doctrinal heresy'. Is ...
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What is the biblical basis for the belief that Jesus' death made satisfaction for individual sins?

Among evangelical Protestants, especially, but also in various other quarters of Christianity, it is common to believe that "Jesus died for me" in the sense that Jesus' death made satisfaction for (in ...
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What is the earliest reference to the notion that we killed Jesus?

In this blog post, Catholic professor Edward Feser discusses the Crucifixion: No silly talk here of “Flying Spaghetti Monsters” and the like; Nietzsche, unlike so many of his successors, still had ...
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Is God the Son's blood divine and infinite or human and finite (Western Catholic)

This question is related to Is God the Son's blood divine and infinite or human and finite (Protestant interpretation), but I didn't realize there may be different interpretations. My question ...
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Is God the Son's blood divine and infinite or human and finite (Protestant interpretation)

Something I hear a lot is "Jesus has to be God because it took an infinite sacrifice to appease the infinite anger of an infinite God", or something like that. My question concerns whether God the ...
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How and when did the penal substitutionary view become popular? How popular today is it? [closed]

It seems very popular among evangelicals today, is it the main theory? Do other Christians generally support this view, and have they supported it historically? Does it have historical support in the ...
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Do Lutherans define Justification and Atonement as different things?

I was considering the doctrine of Lutheran Unlimited/Universal Atonement, which says Christ died for everyone's sins. However, the fact stands that not all people go to heaven – thus not all people's ...
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Did Philip Melanchthon teach penal substitution?

This question is a follow-up to my question, "Did Martin Luther teach penal substitution?" The Wikipedia article on Philip Melanchthon states in its opening paragraphs: Philip Melanchthon . . . (...
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Did Martin Luther teach penal substitution?

The Wikipedia article on Penal Substitution states (under the heading "Differing views"): Critics, however, argue that the theory of penal substitution is solely a later development, only forming ...
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Is there an established concensus meaning of Vicarious Atonement?

The term "Vicarious Atonement" is often used to refer to, or to something described as similar to, Penal Substitution or other understandings of Substitutionary atonement: The phrase 'vicarious ...
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According to proponents of penal substitutionary atonement, why do we still die?

According to the theory of atonement known as penal substitution, the sin of a person is atoned for by the work of Jesus – he paid the penalty for the sin himself when he died, satisfying the ...
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What is the Biblical basis for the “penal” in penal substitutionary atonement?

I have been looking at different models of the atonement and am currently looking at penal substitutionary atonement. While I can see the substitution, I'm struggling somewhat with the idea of Jesus ...
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Is penal substitutionary atonement most prevalent among Calvinists?

I've been looking at penal substitutionary atonement and am finding that although Calvinists and Arminians seem to affirm it, it appears to be Calvinists who affirm it most strongly. Is this accurate?...
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Are there any Protestant denominations or churches that reject penal substitution?

I come from a background in Protestant/Evangelical churches. The trademark salvation message in those churches is that Christ bore the wrath of God for your sins to satisfy his justice that we have ...
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In which writing(s) does Hugo Grotius set forth the “Governmental Theory of the Atonement”?

I'm trying to locate, in book form in English, the writings of Hugo Grotius in relation to the "Governmental View of the Atonement". I see very little of his writings available in book form in English ...
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In Catholicism, why should Jesus have been murdered on the Cross instead of just dying of old age?

Imagine that Jesus wasn't murdered but just died of old age. Would there be a difference in redemption for those who believed in Him? If so, why did he need to be killed? To be clear, I'm ...
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How is the matter of why the Son of God needed to be sacrificed explained in the Roman Catholic Church?

Why did God the Father need to sacrifice His own Son for the sake of granting salvation to the fallen humanity? Couldn't He just forgive humans without making any sacrifice? Why is it so that "without ...
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Which theory of the atonement did C. S. Lewis hold?

In C. S. Lewis's The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe (spoiler alert), the White Witch, the personification of the devil, says some interesting things: You at least know the Magic which the ...
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Looking for a good overview of atonement theory (book or other resource)

I am looking for a good overview/introduction to atonement theory that covers multiple points of view so that I can better understand the difference between the various different theories. I am not ...
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What is the difference between “ransom theory” and “penal substitution”?

Ransom theory and penal substitution are two (of many) views about the exact nature of Jesus' atoning death on the cross. Both suggest that Jesus in some way paid a price on the cross for the benefit ...
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How do opponents of Penal Substitution explain God's declaration that He “will not leave the guilty unpunished”?

In referring to opponents of Penal Substitution theory, I'm referring specifically to those who view it as a false view of the Atonement, not merely that it is incomplete (eg those who hold to ...
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Why is there a need for a perfect sacrifice? Why does Jesus have to be perfect?

Theologically, why was it necessary that Jesus be perfect? Couldn’t there be another ordinary human who said “I will be the sacrifice and take on all the sins of the world past, present, and future ...
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According to the penal substitutionary atonement view, why was Jesus' punishment not eternal?

Given Christianity believes that the "punishment for sin is death" (Rom. 6:23, etc.) and that punishment is eternal (2 Thes. 1:9, Matt. 25:41, Rev. 20:10, etc.), how was Christ's punishment a ...
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How is it just that Jesus, an innocent, would be punished for our sins?

From the perspective that Jesus' suffering on the cross was in fact a punishment for our sins, how is punishing an innocent (Jesus) for the sinners justified? Jesus was innocent but the people were ...
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Could Christ who carried our sins on the cross forgive those same sins?

Christ who bore our sins on the Cross: 1 Peter 2:24 (NASB77) 24 and He Himself bore our sins in His body on the cross, that we might die to sin and live to righteousness; for by His wounds you ...
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Why does Nephi believe he can keep all the commandments?

I can't get the wording exactly right on this question, and it's gonna take some explaining. Nephi says this about the Lord's commandment to get the brass plates, "for I know that the Lord giveth ...
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Mormons, for how long can I be forgiven of all my sins?

What I understand is: Upon baptism and receiving the Holy Ghost, I'm sin-free, 100% forgiven, not perfect, but clean, clean like I could dwell in the presence of God if I died right after I was ...
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Am I a party to the covenant of atonement? [closed]

Jesus prayed (Jn 17:21) that “they may be one in us as you are in me and I am in you.” (Easier to comprehend if in means in union with.) This is the original sense of at-one-ment. “We also joy in God ...
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How do Calvinists account for Calvin's statements on atonement?

Calvinism gets its name from John Calvin. One of the tenets of Calvinism is "Limited Atonement", the idea that Christ died for the elect, not for all mankind. However, this does not appear to be what ...
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What was Anselm's biblical basis for his theory of atonement by satisfaction?

Upon which Bible verses did Anselm base his satisfactory theory of atonement?
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How do non-Trinitarians who do not believe Jesus is God Almighty explain how Jesus can effect atonement for all of humanity?

Non-Trinitarians who do not believe Jesus is God Almighty include Unitarians, Socinians, Arians, Jehova's Witnesses, etc. This would not include, supposedly, Modalists and LDS/Mormons. The idea of ...
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How can God be Sovereign (in the Reformed sense) if a man can ignore His call to repentance?

The Scriptures tell us: The times of ignorance God overlooked, but now he commands all people everywhere to repent, because he has fixed a day on which he will judge the world in righteousness by a ...
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Why must we obey the ten commandments if Jesus died for our sins? [duplicate]

I was told that you must please God if you want to have paradise after life, therefore you should follow the Ten Commandments, but then what does that mean about Jesus? I realized he died for our sins ...
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Jesus's atonement equivalent to sinners' punishments

When Jesus went to the cross, he experienced the ordeal of his arrest agony for three or so days The loss of the rest of his natural life When a sinner sins (without accepting Jesus), he ...
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What is the biblical basis for the claim that Jesus took on the sins of mankind?

It's been said that there is no biblical basis for the assumption that Jesus ever took on the sins of mankind, before, during or after his death. What is the biblical proof that Jesus did take on the ...
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Crucifixion, why the son? [duplicate]

I'm very confused. I understand why Jesus died for us on the cross to pay for all of our sins and I understand how there had to be a virginal birth, so that Jesus could be perfect and without sin. I'...
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How do Arminians understand the doctrine of Unlimited Atonement in a way that does not make God unjust?

The doctrine of unlimited atonement teaches that Christ died for all mankind, but only paid for the sins of those who believe in Him. If this is the case then either Jesus already knew who would ...
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How does Jesus' death and resurrection save humanity? [closed]

Time and again we hear that Christ died for our sins, or that Christ died so that we could be saved. But I've never understood how exactly the two are connected? In what way does the death of Christ ...