Questions tagged [apostolic-fathers]

Church fathers / leaders who personally knew, or taught by the Apostles. Can also be used for anonymous works written within the same period, roughly the generation immediately after the apostles. See full tag wiki for examples. Include the church-fathers tag as well. But for later church fathers, use the church-fathers tag ONLY.

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Did the Ante-Nicene Church believe in the personhood of the Holy Spirit? [duplicate]

Did the Ante-Nicene Church believe in the personhood of the Holy Spirit? What about the Apostolic Fathers and Ante-Nicene Fathers? Is there any evidence that they believed in a sentient and conscious ...
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Did the Early Church (ante-Nicene period) believe in the continuation or cessation of the office of Prophet?

What did the Apostolic Fathers, Ante-Nicene Fathers and the Ante-Nicene Church in general believe about the continuation of the office of Prophet? Were they cessationists or continuationists with ...
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3 votes
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Did the Early Church (ante-Nicene period) believe in the continuation or cessation of the office of Apostle?

What did the Apostolic Fathers, Ante-Nicene Fathers and the Ante-Nicene Church in general believe about the continuation of the office of Apostle? Were they cessationists or continuationists with ...
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Why didn't Polycarp mention John in his Epistle?

Polycarp is said to be a student of the Apostle John. Yet he never mentions it in his epistle, nor does he quote the Gospel of John. Why is that?
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What did the Early Church (ante-Nicene period) believe about Gehenna and the Second Death?

Gehenna according to Strong's Concordance geenna: Gehenna, a valley W. and South of Jer., also a symbolic name for the final place of punishment of the ungodly Original Word: γέεννα, ης, ἡ Part of ...
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For Christians who are skeptical of the writings of the Apostolic & Ante-Nicene Fathers, what is their epistemological basis for trusting a canon?

The process of formation of the Biblical canon(s) demonstrably required lots and lots of human intervention, judgement and discernment by the Early Church over the course of several centuries. ...
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4 votes
3 answers
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Did any Apostolic or Ante-Nicene Fathers believe that Jesus was a created being?

Nothing to add to the title: did any Apostolic or Ante-Nicene Fathers believe that Jesus was a created being? Related questions: Which Ante-Nicene Church Fathers believed that Jesus is the "...
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5 votes
1 answer
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What did the Apostolic and ante-Nicene Fathers believe about Sheol/Hades?

What did the Apostolic and ante-Nicene Fathers believe about Sheol / Hades? Did they believe that it was a real supernatural place that houses the spirits of the dead? Did they believe that it was a ...
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2 votes
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Is there a name for solving doctrinal disputes that cannot be decided on exegesis alone by surveying the positions of the Ante-Nicene Fathers?

If two mutually contradictory doctrines A and B can both be defended through careful exegesis of different sets of passages, in such a manner that there is no obvious way to "prove" (in a ...
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6 votes
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What is the biblical & patristic basis for the belief that the saints go to Heaven instead of Sheol after the resurrection and ascension of Jesus?

As they say, a picture is worth a thousand words: (source) The above link already makes some good arguments, but considering that the linked site could go down for unexpected reasons and that other ...
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2 votes
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Do any denominations consider the writings of any Apostolic or ante-Nicene Father to be inspired?

Do any denominations consider the writings of any Apostolic or ante-Nicene Father to be inspired and authoritative to establish doctrines? If so, what criteria are used to make such a determination?
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What is the view of soul sleep adherents on statements from the Apostolic and ante-Nicene Fathers that seem to support post-mortal consciousness?

Inspired by the answers I received to my previous question What did the Apostolic Fathers believe regarding the state of the dead and the afterlife?, I'm very curious about what proponents of Soul ...
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What did the Apostolic Fathers believe regarding the state of the dead and the afterlife?

In the context of related debates such as: Bipartite vs. Tripartite natures of man, Soul sleep vs. Consciousness during the intermediate state, and Annihilationism / Conditional immortality vs. ...
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Who first used the term "spirit of fornication" (𝘴𝘱𝘪𝘳𝘪𝘵𝘶𝘴 𝘧𝘰𝘳𝘯𝘪𝘤𝘢𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯𝘪𝘴)?

Who first used the term "spirit of fornication" (spiritus fornicationis)? It appears in the Litany of the Saints (Litaniæ Sanctorum): A spiritu fornicationis, ℟. libera nos, Domine. From ...
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What does the historical evidence tell us about the pneumatological beliefs of the early Church during the first two centuries of Christianity?

What did the early Christians believe about the Holy Spirit in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD? What does the historical evidence tell us? Did most Christians believe that the Holy Spirit was a Person? ...
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1 vote
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What is the basis for the belief that Ignatius of Antioch knew the Apostle John?

What is the basis for the belief that Ignatius of Antioch knew the Apostle John? This seems to be a traditional belief. For example, The Catholic Encyclopedia entry from 1910 says "It is also ...
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4 votes
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Are there any denominations that defend their doctrines by appealing to extra-biblical evidence from the 1st/2nd century of the early Church?

When it comes to controversial doctrines, I have a tendency to pay attention to what the early Church had to say on the subject. Of course, the most important early Church writings are compiled in the ...
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2 votes
3 answers
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Are there any extra-biblical writings that document what the early Christians believed about the second coming of Christ?

Are there any extra-biblical writings that document what the early Christians believed about the second coming of Christ? For example, any preserved documents that explain what the early Christians ...
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3 votes
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How do Unitarians respond to quotations from Ignatius of Antioch that seem to show Ignatius believes Jesus is God?

Ignatius of Antioch is one of the Apostolic Church Fathers - one of 4 from whom we have significant writings (along with Pope Clement I, Polycarp of Smyrna, and Papias of Hierapolis). Of the 4, the ...
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3 votes
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What is an overview of the early Church's viewpoints on Christology at the time of the Apostolic Era?

What were the beliefs of the early Church regarding the nature of Jesus during the Apostolic Era? By Apostolic Era, I mean the time of the Apostles and their immediate successors who knew them ...
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6 votes
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Is there any historical evidence of Early Church Christians denying the divinity of Jesus during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD?

I'm essentially asking the counter-question to this one. Is there any historical evidence of Early Church Christians (post-New Testament) openly denying the divinity of Jesus in the 1st and 2nd ...
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4 votes
3 answers
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Is there any historical evidence that the early church believed in the divinity of Jesus?

Is there any historical evidence that the early church believed in the divinity of Jesus? What about the first century? What about the second century (and so on)? Was the belief in the divinity of ...
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6 votes
2 answers
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Is there any historical evidence that the early church believed in the doctrine of intercession of saints during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD?

Motivated by a related question, I would like to know if there is any historical evidence that the early church believed in the doctrine of intercession of saints during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD.
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2 votes
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How much of the text of the Gospel of John can be substantiated by early copies and quotes from early Church Fathers?

It's interesting that a person will claim passages were added at a later date without considering the textual evidence. A fragment of the Gospel of John dates in the first half of the second century. ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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What was the dominant theory of atonement shown in the Apostolic Fathers's writings?

Most articles I read about the theory of atonement in the early church say that Ransom Theory was the prevailing one, although some disagree. This thinking was promoted by a landmark book on the ...
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4 votes
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What were the Apostolic Fathers's contributions to Christology which survived to Nicene (325 AD) and Chalcedon (451 AD)?

The Apostolic Fathers is a special group of church fathers who personally knew or taught by the apostles. Some of their writings were even considered to be included in the canon although ultimately ...
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4 votes
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Were any of the Apostolic Fathers Jews?

A simple question; I am reading the Apostolic Fathers and have noticed how they frequently refer to themselves as 'Gods Chosen' and speak of the Old Testament prophets as 'Our Forefathers'. This ...
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