Questions tagged [apologetics]

Defenses of religious positions using reason. This tag should only be used with respect to disagreements with religions other than Christianity.

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How might a Christian convince an atheist that the Holy Spirit is real and not just warm fuzzy feelings? [closed]

In 1998, Dr William Lane Craig debated Professor Keith M. Parsons at Prestonwood Baptist Church in Plano, TX. The topic of the debate was "Why I Am/Am Not a Christian." After the debate ...
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What is the Biblical basis for Christians partaking in formal intellectual debates with atheists and skeptics?

Notable examples include: Does God Exist? William Lane Craig vs. Christopher Hitchens - Full Debate [HD] The God Debate II: Harris vs. Craig Does Math Point to God? William Lane Craig + Graham Oppy ...
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Should apologetics take into account deeper convictions behind rational arguments?

Lately I came across What are Christian responses to the atheistic argument that God is an unnecessary and overly complicated extra step? and posted an answer to it. Although I wrote my post in ...
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How might a Christian persuade a naturalist non-theist that the universe cannot be a brute fact?

In contemporary philosophy, a brute fact is a fact that cannot be explained in terms of a deeper, more "fundamental" fact. There are two main ways to explain something: say what "...
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How do Christian advocates of the Fine Tuning argument for God's existence address the objection posed by the Anthropic Principle?

The anthropic principle, also known as the "observation selection effect", is the hypothesis, first proposed in 1957 by Robert Dicke, that the range of possible observations that could be ...
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What are Christian responses to the atheistic argument that God is an unnecessary and overly complicated extra step?

One presentation of this argument is put forward by Carl Sagan: "If the general picture, however, of a Big Bang followed by an expanding universe is correct - what happened before that? Was the ...
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When did the demand for explicit deity claim by Jesus emerge?

It is my opinion that the demand or challenge to find explicit deity claims by Jesus began in very recent times, possibly not until the 20th century, by groups which denied his deity. Is there any ...
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What are Christian responses to Graham Oppy's argument for atheism from naturalism?

Short version I'm specifically referring to Graham Oppy's paper An Argument for Atheism from Naturalism: Abstract This paper outlines an argument for atheism from naturalism that I have developed in ...
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What extrabiblical arguments do Christians employ (i.e., utilize in apologetics) to defend the existence of spirits or souls?

According to the 2020 PhilPapers Survey results, when asked about their stance on Consciousness: identity theory, eliminativism, functionalism, dualism, or panpsychism?, only 20.98% leaned towards or ...
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What are rebuttals to the argument that Christians only worship God to give their lives meaning?

Many people argue that we only created God and religion to give our lives meaning, and that is why we worship God and other gods. However, we have to take into consideration that humans tend to ...
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When is it rationally justified for a Christian to say that an anomalous event that has taken place is a miracle?

I've been engaged in a thought-provoking chat discussion with an atheist on the philosophy site. In our conversation, I've been advocating for the idea that there is evidence supporting the existence ...
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Apologetics vs. Evangelism?

When engaging with non-believers, including atheists, agnostics, apatheists, pagans, and others, two distinct approaches come to light: The first is the Apologetics approach, involving the ...
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If a person thinks there is no afterlife, why should he choose to be righteous?

I have seen people resort to arguments such as "if there is no afterlife, why be good (or religious)?". Counterarguments to living in sin during this life include final judgment and the ...
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What specific strategies exist in apologetics to effectively engage and persuade individuals who adhere to pagan beliefs?

Note: This question has been inspired by the related question Convince a Heathen Theologian with 25 years of Experience I'm intrigued by the prospect of tailoring apologetics strategies specifically ...
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What is an overview of perspectives on whether the existence of the Christian God can be established solely through the use of reason and evidence?

Note: I'm interested in the Christian perspective on the question Can God's existence be established through reason and publicly accessible evidence? that I recently asked on Philosophy Stack Exchange....
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In modern emerging Evangelicalism, how does less focus on General Revelation imply a more Experience-oriented religion?

According to experienced Christians, "If anything, a focus on General Revelation should correlate with more experience focus, as people relish in the signs of God." It is so true that when ...
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How are Romans 1:19-20 and Psalm 139:7-10 reconciled with the growing prevalence of the argument from divine hiddenness among atheists?

Romans 1:18-25 ESV 18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who by their unrighteousness suppress the truth. 19 For what can be known about ...
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How can a case be made against reducing the Christian experience to the Placebo effect? [closed]

The responses and reactions elicited by the question Is Christianity testable? on Philosophy Stack Exchange have been quite insightful. In particular, I would like to bring the reader's attention to ...
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According to Christians who argue for the testability of Christianity, what is a step-by-step guide on how to perform such a test?

Context: before answering this question, I highly recommend reading the answers to Is Christianity testable? and What is the biblical basis for John Lennox's claim that Christianity is testable?. ...
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What is the biblical basis for John Lennox's claim that Christianity is testable?

In a debate between John Lennox and Peter Atkins on the topic "Can science explain everything?", at minute 44:47 John Lennox claims: Lennox: "And the major reason why I believe that ...
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How to refute the argument that is is possible to be saved without Jesus and do apologetics for it

I've recently thought of an argument that might undermine Christianity but I'm not sure if I simply reinvented a super old argument that already has a refutation or it's a novel one (probably not), ...
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What are the "gospels" in the Gospels?

As far as I know there are 4 Gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. I am an ex-Christian (currently atheist) who had a debate with a Muslim about a few discrepancies between the Qur'an and the Bible. ...
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What is the biblical counter-argument to the expression "the Universe provides"?

I have been given an assignment to address the view held by some people that "the Universe provides." My first thought was to investigate the New Age movement and beliefs but, although I ...
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Refutation of Nailed: Ten Christian Myths That Show Jesus Never Existed at All (David Fitzgerald)

David Fitzgerald published a book called Nailed: Ten Christian Myths That Show Jesus Never Existed at All in 2010. Are there any published refutations or rebuttals to this work?
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On Bible Verses Defined by the Catholic Church

The following link seems to provide some good insight into Bible verses whose meanings have been definitively declared by the Catholic Church. https://www.catholicfidelity.com/apologetics-topics/bible/...
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What could account for this 1990 radical change in belief about the German school of Higher Criticism (that began around 1860)?

This development in German universities in the 1800s is not to be confused with today’s “Critical Theory” (just in case anyone reading the 1990 quote below thinks they are akin.) This question deals ...
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Is there a possible compatibility between immutability and God's mercy?

Objection: If God exists, He is immutable. If God exists, he is merciful. An immutable being cannot be affected by any event (since God is not subject to change). A merciful being must be affected ...
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The Historicity of David, Pilate, and the Philistines

I've looked at the discoveries of things like the Tel Dan Inscription or the Pilate Stone which testify to the existence of David and Pilate. I read that before such archeological discoveries, the ...
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Did the religion of Christianity arise in AD70?

It has been suggested that the religion of Christianity arose as a result of the destruction of the Jewish temple and the Jewish priesthood by the Romans in the year 70. This date marks the inception ...
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If God is perfect, do we live in the best of all possible worlds?

God is supposed to be perfect. If the world is the work of a perfect god, it should be, as Leibniz argued, the best possible world. But it is not very difficult to imagine a better world than this. ...
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How can one counter-argue this argument against the existence of God?

Argument: If God is the Creator, He cannot be perfect. For either God created the world desiring it or not desiring it. If he did not wish it, it implies that he does not have total control over his ...
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What is the Transcendental Argument proof of God's existence?

I am aware of the several Metaphysical Arguments for the proof of God's existence (Cosmological, Teleological, Anthropological, etc.). And am familiar with the Logical Syllogisms showing the lethal ...
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Why does God punish us for our will?

This is a huge question. Do let me know if its immensity makes it off-topic for this site. I will start out my question with a quote from Schopenhauer: A man can do what he wills, but not will what ...
user110391's user avatar
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Is the Christian Religion based on "Faith in Faith" or does it have a foundation of "Acceptance of Facts"?

Many Christians who attend church, when confronted by inquirers outside the church, who wonder why they believe in Christianity, simply respond by saying, I just accept it by faith. Or they might say, ...
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How do proponents of the Fine Tuning argument for God, refute the puddle comparison?

The fine tuning argument essentially states that there is so much about the universe that is "fine tuned" for life - eg things like the gravitational constant would cause the universe to ...
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What would be a theologically sound and measured response to Joan Osbourne's "One of us"?

That song was a big song in the 90s. What would be a orthodox response to the views in that song be? God was indeed one of us for a while. God does indeed have a name and yes he is called that "...
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Does Christianity "Match" Reality? [closed]

I don't know if this is a "good" question for Christianity Stack Exchange, but it's weighing heavily on my mind, and this seems as good a place as any. So here goes. I grew up as a Christian ...
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Are there other Christian authors besides WLC who believe that all Christians have access to a direct, self-authenticating experience of God?

My question is motivated by the following excerpt from William Lane Craig's Reasonable Faith article The Witness of the Holy Spirit: Plantinga's model involves crucially what is usually called the ...
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What are Christian apologetics refutations of the objections posited by the site: Why Won't God Heal Amputees?

The site: Why Won't God Heal Amputees? Relevant quotes: Is God real, or is he imaginary? Is God real, or is he imaginary? It is one of the most important questions you can ask yourself. If God is ...
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3 votes
4 answers
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Has any Christian philosopher ever argued that naturalism can be shown to be false?

From Wikipedia: In philosophy, naturalism is the idea or belief that only natural laws and forces (as opposed to supernatural ones) operate in the universe.[1] Naturalism is not so much a special ...
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How do non-LDS Christians respond to the stylometry argument for the authenticity of the Book of Mormon?

Multiple sources have put forward this argument. For example, the Journal of Book of Mormon Studies article Stylometric Analyses of the Book of Mormon: A Short History (link) affirms: Abstract The ...
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Between the Bible and the Book of Mormon, which one has a more plausible alternate account of its invention? [closed]

This question is inspired by comments from this post: https://christianity.stackexchange.com/a/92394/35508 In this question, I am referring to the Bible as the 66 books of the Old Testament and New ...
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Is it superstitious to have a worldview where supernatural interventions are not just possible but likely?

There was a quickly deleted S.E. post that responded to this question, "is there any way for a rational person to reach the conclusion that Christianity is definitely true?" The post that ...
Jess's user avatar
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Believing that Christianity is "probably" true vs. being fully convinced that Christianity is definitely true?

Most apologetic arguments for theism/Christianity are probabilistic (i.e. they are abductive in nature, rely on premises that are not necessarily true, etc.), meaning that a rational person who is ...
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Based on post-2000 scholarly research, how do Christians defend that it was Jesus himself who prophesied the first Jewish-Roman war?

It's a common assertion by liberal Bible scholars that rather than Jesus himself who prophesied the destruction of the temple in AD 70 along with the ensuing wars and sufferings, it was the Gospel ...
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According to Latter-day Saint epistemology, do Latter-day Saints perceive the witness of the Holy Ghost as an intrinsic defeater-defeater?

From https://iep.utm.edu/defeaters-in-epistemology/: According to Plantinga (1986), some beliefs can, by virtue of their own degree of warrant, defeat defeaters that come their way. When a belief has ...
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8 votes
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Spaulding Theory: How do Latter-day Saints respond to the claim that the Book of Mormon is based on "Manuscript Found" by Solomon Spaulding?

This topic has come up occasionally in other posts, but I found no question on the site asking about this specifically. In 1834, ED Howe published Mormonism Unvailed [sic], claiming based upon the ...
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Is there any extra-biblical evidence that shows the apostles were martyred?

Church tradition tells us that most of the 12 apostles were martyred, with the apostle John being the only one considered to die an old death. Is there any extra-biblical evidence that shows the ...
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How could the Pharisees anticipate Jesus’ resurrection before the disciples?

The gospel of Matthew records that after Jesus’ death, the Pharisees and teachers of the Law went to Pilate to ask for a guard, since they remembered that Jesus said he would rise again on the third ...
ellied's user avatar
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URLs for Christian Polemic Repositories

This post may be considered as a follow-up for a previous post of mine, which unfortunately was closed because it did not "focuses on one problem only". Okay, let me rephrase my question to ...
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