James the Just (son of Joseph, brother of the Lord)
James the Less (son of Alphaeus, apostle)
James the Greater (son of Zebedee, apostle)
It is highly unlikely that the mentioned James in Mt 13:55 is anyone else than James the Just, first bishop of the Jerusalem church, the Lord's brother (same mother, different father). Josephus, Ignatius, and many others mention this.
Festus was now dead, and Albinus was but upon the road; so he assembled the sanhedrim of judges, and brought before them the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James, and some others, [or, some of his companions]; and when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned
If thou wilt give me leave, I desire to go up to Jerusalem, and see the faithful saints who are there, especially Mary the mother, whom they report to be an object of admiration and of affection to all. For who would not rejoice to behold and to address her who bore the true God from her own womb, provided he is a friend of our faith and religion? And in like manner [I desire to see] the venerable James, who is surnamed Just, whom they relate to be very like Christ Jesus in appearance, in life, and in method of conduct, as if he were a twin-brother of the same womb. They say that, if I see him, I see also Jesus Himself, as to all the features and aspect of His body. Moreover, [I desire to see] the other saints, both male and female. Alas! why do I delay? Why am I kept back? Kind teacher, bid me hasten [to fulfil my wish], and fare thou well. Amen.
ANF01. The Apostolic Fathers with Justin Martyr and Irenaeus | Christian Classics Ethereal Library
Origen says this.
… these disasters happened to the Jews as a punishment for the death of James the Just, who was a brother of Jesus (called Christ),—the Jews having put him to death, although he was a man most distinguished for his justice.Paul, a genuine disciple of Jesus, says that he regarded this James as a brother of the Lord, not so much on account of their relationship by blood, or of their being brought up together, as because of his virtue and doctrine.
So, early tradition identifies James the Just as the brother mentioned in Mt. 13:33.
From Jamieson Fausset Brown, we find this commentary on the brothers.
The confusion about who this James was arose because of Jerome who thought Joseph should also be ever-virgin, like he thought, was Mary.
As to the names here mentioned, the first of them, "JAMES," is afterwards called "the Lord's brother" (see on JF & B for Ga 1:19), but is perhaps not to be confounded with "James the son of Alphaeus," one of the Twelve, though many think their identity beyond dispute. This question also is one of considerable difficulty, and not without importance; since the James who occupies so prominent a place in the Church of Jerusalem, in the latter part of the Acts, was apparently the apostle [but only after resurrection, while James the Less was an apostle prior (and after)], but is by many regarded as "the Lord's brother," while others think their identity best suits all the statements. The second of those here named, "JOSES" (or Joseph), must not be confounded with "Joseph called Barsabas, who was surnamed Justus" ( Act 1:23 ); and the third here named, "SIMON," is not to be confounded with Simon the Kananite or Zealot (see on JF & B for Mt 10:4). These three are nowhere else mentioned in the New Testament. The fourth and last-named, "JUDAS," can hardly be identical with the apostle of that name--though the brothers of both were of the name of "James"--nor (unless the two be identical, was this Judas) with the author of the catholic Epistle so called. -source-
So, tradition would say that James the Just the Lord's brother like the others did not believe and so was different from the two James who were apostles prior to (and after) resurrection.
Subsequent, we learn this.
There still survived of the kindred of the Lord the grandsons of Judas, who according to the flesh was called his brother. These were informed against, as belonging to the family of David, and Evocatus brought them before Domitian Caesar: for that emperor dreaded the advent of Christ, as Herod had done. So he asked them whether they were of the family of David; and they confessed they were. https://ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf201/npnf201.iii.viii.xx.html#fnf_iii.viii.xx-p2.2
Cyril of Jerusalem circa 350 CE helps to clarify all of this.
And He was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve; (for if thou believe not the one witness, thou hast twelve witnesses then He was seen of above five hundred brethren at once ; (if they disbelieve the twelve, let them admit the five hundred after that He was seen of James, His own brother, and first Bishop of this diocese. Seeing then that such a Bishop originally saw Christ Jesus when risen, do not thou, his disciple, disbelieve him. But thou sayest that His brother James was a partial witness; afterwards He was seen also of me Paul, His enemy; and what testimony is doubted, when an enemy proclaims it?
NPNF2-07. Cyril of Jerusalem, Gregory Nazianzen | Christian Classics Ethereal Library
James His own brother. Can't get any clearer.
Finally, Eusebius relates this, distinguishing between James the Just (Lord's brother) and James the Lessor (son of Zebedee).
- But the same writer, in the seventh book of the same work, relates also the following things concerning him: “The Lord after his resurrection imparted knowledge to James the Just and to John and Peter, and they imparted it to the rest of the apostles, and the rest of the apostles to the seventy, of whom Barnabas was one.245 But there were two Jameses:246 one called the Just, who was thrown from the pinnacle of the temple and was beaten to death with a club by a fuller,247 and another who was beheaded.”248 Paul also makes mention of the same James the Just, where he writes, “Other of the apostles saw I none, save James the Lord’s brother.” -source-
So, to answer the OP.
The apostles, prior to resurrection, are named at Mt 10:2-4, Mk 3:16-19, Lk 6:14-16, Acts 1:13.
James the Just son of Joseph is different from James the Less son of Zebedee (which incidentally, if one confuses the two, then we lose the meaning of renaming sons of Zebedee to sons of thunder).
As to naming children the same, I'm not sure, but here and here may help.
Regarding Joseph/Joses, not much is known past his mention in the Bible as quoted above. However, there is the tradition he may have followed in the footsteps of his brother James the Just.
A "Joses" appears in the bishop lists of Epiphanius ("Josis") and Eusebius ("Joseph") of the early bishops of Jerusalem. -source-
So, if not mistaken, all OP questions are now answered.