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Another user made the comment:

What is undisputed is that the Fathers left no room for evolution.

I'm aware that the Church Fathers for the most part believed that Earth was Created some time between about 3,000 BC and 10,000 BC (and certainly not billions of years ago). I'm also aware that "evolution" is a poorly defined term, but for this purpose, I think it's safe to use the sense of humans being descended from non-humans, i.e. Common Descent.

It may need to be pointed out that "evolutionary" ideas are not new. Lucretius (b. 98 BC) wrote "the earth deserves the name of mother which she possesses, since from the earth all things have been produced" and "of herself she created the human race" (On the Nature of Things). Galen wrote that "certain things are impossible by nature [...] God does not even attempt such things at all but [we say] that he chooses the best out of the possibility of becoming" (On the Usefulness of the Parts of the Body), which strongly suggests an early expression of directed evolution.

Which Church Fathers and/or Apostles, if any, specifically wrote against the idea that humans somehow arose from non-human animals? Note that I am not interested in implicit denials arising from assertions that Earth is only some thousands of years old (which are trivial to find). I am looking for instances where Common Descent (or an equivalent concept) is specifically denied.

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Which Church Fathers and/or Apostles, if any, specifically wrote against the idea that humans somehow arose from non-human animals?

The short answer is none!

So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them. Genesis 1:27

The Church Fathers believed that man was uniquely created by God.

The notion of human evolution did not become a subject of intellectual speculation until the 18th or 19th centuries, so how could such a subject matter be known to any of the Church Fathers or Apostles.

The English physician Erasmus Darwin, grandfather of Charles Darwin, offered in his Zoonomia; or, The Laws of Organic Life (1794–96) some evolutionary speculations, but they were not further developed and had no real influence on subsequent theories. The Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus devised the hierarchical system of plant and animal classification that is still in use in a modernized form. Although he insisted on the fixity of species, his classification system eventually contributed much to the acceptance of the concept of common descent. - History of evolutionary theory

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  • One would think that, if common descent was going to be so destructive to the faith in the future, and that if the Holy Spirit were truly guiding these church fathers, He would surely have called out the falsity of common descent out of His omniscient foreknowledge and love for the future wellbeing of the Church. He did that with abortion, after all.
    – Fomalhaut
    Feb 8, 2023 at 2:49
  • Given at least Theophilus wrote that "the world is not uncreated nor is there spontaneous production of everything, as Pythagoras and the others have babbled", I am deeply suspicious of this answer.
    – Matthew
    Feb 8, 2023 at 15:59
  • @Matthew Your question is quite clear: "Which Church Fathers and/or Apostles, if any, specifically wrote against the idea that humans somehow arose from non-human animals?" I did not believe that Theophilus or other Church Fathers addressed this issue in a clear unequivocally manner.
    – Ken Graham
    Feb 8, 2023 at 16:27
  • Okay. This may be technically correct, although the notion that humans were uniquely Created is clearly in opposition, if not explicitly so, to Common Descent. However, I believe the second half of your answer is simply incorrect. See this answer.
    – Matthew
    Feb 8, 2023 at 19:18

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