Constable's commentary in the NET Bible sheds light on the first verses you quote from 1 Corinthians 8:
For instructed Christians there is only one God and one Lord. Paul did
not mean that there are two separate beings, God and Lord. These are
two names for the one true God who exists as Father and Son. The
Scriptures establish the deity of Jesus Christ elsewhere (e.g., John
1:1, 14; 10:30; Col. 1:15-19; et al.). Paul did not argue that point
here but simply stated the Son’s equality with the Father within the
The point of difference is this. The Father is the source and goal of
all things whereas the Son is the agent though whom all things have
come from God and will return to God. Since Paul’s point was the unity
of the Godhead, there was no need to complicate matters by referring
to the Holy Spirit here.]1
As for the verses in Romans 13 and Ephesians 4, Constable's comments shed light on your question.
The Lord Jesus Christ is in no way less than God the Father. The same can be said of the Holy Spirit. The Spirit, too, is fully God (see Acts 5:1-4). (I'd like to think that Paul would concur with the apostle Peter that Ananais and Sapphira lied to God, the Holy Spirit, and not to a man.)
God's person-hood, as it has been revealed in holy Scripture, can be likened--in an always less than perfect analogy--to the three branches of government in the American system: Executive, Legislative, and Judicial. All three branches are in agreement regarding constitutionally derived concepts. Each of the three, however, has different functions.
Unlike the American system of government, there does not exist a system of "checks and balances" within the Godhead, since each person of the Trinity is and functions according to His role, in keeping with the Counsels of God in eternity past.
I will not at this point attempt to link the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit with a corresponding branch of government. I will, however, suggest that there is an agreement, a unity, and a coherence in the essential deity of all three persons, the differences in their roles in the outworking of God's plan for the ages notwithstanding.
Perhaps you should meditate on several passages in this regard (in their respective contexts, of course):