So Saint Thomas Aquinas said there cannot be multiple gods because there would be disorder since what one wills the other might not and to not fulfill one's will is a defect.

But if all gods are good since divinity is good wouldn't they will the same things since they are good?

Doesn't this refute Aquinas?

Or are there neutral things that can be willed?

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    Commented Sep 19, 2022 at 9:48

2 Answers 2


Here is a good video summarizing Aquinas' position on polytheism.

To summarize, it depends very much on your definition of God. The Christian definition of God means perfection and omnipotence. There cannot be two Gods unless both are perfect, and if they are both perfect (including both perfectly good) then they not only cannot disagree, but they cannot be different. You say "they both will the same thing", but if they always absolutely willed the same thing then they would actually be the same.

If you believe in a God with a less strict definition than that (such as the Greek or Roman 'gods') then it is perfectly possible to have more than one, but those are not what Christianity means by "God".


if all gods are good since divinity is good

False gods do not share in the divine nature of the Holy Trinity. False gods are actually demons:

Ps. 95:5:

For all the gods of the Gentiles are devils: but the Lord made the heavens.

But only the Holy Trinity is the creator of all other beings:

1 Cor. 8:5-6:

For although there be that are called gods, either in heaven or on earth (for there be gods many and lords many): Yet to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we unto him: and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him.

are there neutral things that can be willed?

Every creature is good:

1 Tim. 4:4a:

For every creature of God is good

There is no such this as a creature by nature evil or neutrally good or evil.

  • While this answer is correct in regards revealed theology, it seems the answer would be improved by including details from natural theology especially as understood by Aquinas since the posted question asks in relation to natural theology.
    – eques
    Commented Sep 21, 2022 at 16:31
  • Doesn't seem relevant to the question, which is about the writings of Aquinas.
    – Maverick
    Commented Sep 23, 2022 at 13:44

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