The revelation of the New Testament vastly exceeds anything that preceded it : especially so in regard to the fatherhood of the Father.
So I can find no evidence at all in the pages of the bible that what was revealed in the gospel was already familiar to the generality of Jewish belief at the time of Jesus' ministry.
The coming of the Son of God is that which reveals the true nature of God and which reveals the fatherhood of God, the Father.
Until that time, yes, God was a 'father' to Israel but Israel constantly rejected the Deity as can readily be seen in the history of that nation ; in the journey through the wilderness ; in the time of the Judges ; in the time of Saul ; of David and of the following kings of both Israel and Judah.
Thus, the rejection of Deity by the seed of Adam (exampled by that most privileged of all of that seed, Israel) showed the necessity of another kind of humanity to fulfil the purposes of God.
And that is seen, only, in the coming of the Son of God.
That which was 'the life, the eternal', 1 John 1:2, 'was manifested'. He who was the logos (and God was the logos, John 1:2) was, in the beginning, with God, John 1:1, and 'became flesh', John 1:14.
Thus the revelation of the Son.
And this revelation reveals the Father. The Father who begets the Son. For God does not 'create' the Son, He begets the Son. The Son is begotten of the Father not fashioned out of other substance.
This astounding revelation heralds the New Testament and the New Creation : a testament of redemption out of Adam and into Christ by a New Creation that is of Spirit. A union of Spirit (that is to say a union of Holy Spirit and the spirit of man) that brings in a new humanity.
This humanity is under the Headship of Jesus Christ : He, the Head, they the Body. These things are revealed in the gospels, the epistles and the book of Revelation.
This revelation is far, far greater than anything which preceded.
As far as the heavens are above the earth, so far does this revelation exceed what little was able to be known among the natural seed of Abraham : Israel.
There are prophetic hints, indeed and of course, as there are prophetic hints of the Messiah himself, Jesus Christ, and hints of his redemption, of justification, of the Body of Christ and what it will entail, but they are faint wisps of imagery and metaphor compared to the staggering revelation when, ultimately, the Father sent the Son to be the Saviour of the world.
The four evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, clearly document that the Jews, as a nation, had thoroughly rejected these hints and nuances scattered throughout the Hebrew scriptures by the prophets. Thus Jesus constantly had to rebuke those around him, for unbelief, and had to repeatedly, in his ministering, warn his hearers of the Pharisees, of the Sadducees, of the Doctors of the Law and of the scribes that neither their way nor their ideology were any part of the New Testament.