This question has some interesting background information on Church councils not having anything to say about Chiliasm: Does the Nicene Creed condemn Chiliasm? but my question seeks to know what caused belief in a literal 1000 year reign of Christ to surface after centuries of it being almost totally buried. Who dug it up, and why, and when?
Modern readers might best identify Chiliasm with Premillennialism. There are two types – Dispensational Premillennialism – Expectation of a literal thousand-year kingdom in the future that will also culminate in human failure. Israel and the church represent two distinct peoples with different programmes in salvation history. Then there is Historic Premillennialism - a literal millennium in the future, but with less discontinuity between Israel and the church than in the dispensationalist view.
It is my understanding that Dispensational Premillennialism did not spring up until the 19th century, the concept of “a secret rapture” being integral to John Nelson Darby’s scheme. The Reformation did not teach any literal thousand year rule of Christ on earth as far as I know, being amillennial on that point – the thousand years of Revelation 20 being symbolic, covering the whole age from Christ’s triumphant return to heaven until his sudden return to earth to usher in the Day of Resurrection and Judgment.
However, I don’t know anything particular about Historic Premillennialism. I wonder if that school of thought kept Chiliasm from actually dying out? Anybody know anything about Historic Premillennialism?
I’m seeking answers from anyone familiar with Church History with regard to Chiliasm, as to who revived it, why and when.
This question is not interested in any opinions or interpretations of the various schools of thought on this topic. It simply seeks to trace some kind of historic date-line for the fading away then the re-emerging of this Chiliastic view.