Do Mormons agree with the Apostle Paul...?
Yes, except belief isn't just a word. This is clarified in Helaman 14:13
13 And if ye believe on his name ye will repent of all your sins, that thereby ye may have a remission of them through his merits.
And this is exemplified in vs 33 (Acts 16) when they are baptized. They didn't just need to say they believed, but they acted on that belief.
how does Mormon teaching reconcile this?
Baptism is the first saving ordinance of the gospel. So the jailer took the first step, no reconciliation required. Other saving ordinances include:
Isaiah 28:9-13 teaches us learning and progressing in the gospel is a process.
9 ¶ Whom shall he teach knowledge? and whom shall he make to understand doctrine? them that are weaned from the milk, and drawn from the breasts.
10 For precept must be upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little:
11 For with stammering lips and another tongue will he speak to this people.
12 To whom he said, This is the rest wherewith ye may cause the weary to rest; and this is the refreshing: yet they would not hear.
13 But the word of the Lord was unto them precept upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little; that they might go, and fall backward, and be broken, and snared, and taken.
Apostle Paul did not mention any Masonic/occult rituals, the covenants, the work or the pre-requisites required of Mormons
The ordinances besides baptism, all require baptism first. Just like sealings can't be done unless one has been endowed. Each ordinance is a step. Just as babies can't eat meat right away, but have milk first.1 Why would Paul introduce more ordinances when the man hadn't been baptized yet? Also verse 32 does say
And they spake unto him the word of the Lord, and to all that were in his house. which doesn't give the exact words spoken by Paul, he could've taught the principle of ordinances and covenants.
No tithing, "sustaining the prophet" or temples or interrogations to determine worthiness.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints don't base everything off of a single scripture or teaching of one apostle. Instead we really on all scriptures containing words from multiple apostles and prophets together. The church of Jesus Christ also rely on modern day prophets and apostles to guide us. The gospel of Jesus Christ is a magnificent tapestry of truth “fitly framed” and woven together.2 Paul also said in Ephesians 1:10
That in the dispensation of the fulness of times he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth; even in him:
In regards to the "interrogations to determine worthiness" all the questions are available
Jesus also said in John 3:5
5 Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.
which sounds like a do. The Church of Jesus Christ state in Article of Faith 4
4 We believe that the first principles and ordinances of the Gospel are: first, Faith in the Lord Jesus Christ; second, Repentance; third, Baptism by immersion for the remission of sins; fourth, Laying on of hands for the gift of the Holy Ghost.
Which covers both believing and doing, as faith leads to action (such as baptism)
1 1 Corinthians 3:2-3
2 Gather Together in One All Things in Christ, Elder David A Bednar