Some critics of Christianity, (Muslims, for example), argue that though Saint Paul believed that Jesus was crucified and his crucifixion has a significance (that he redeems all people from the effects of the Fall) but that doesn't necessarily require that the Jerusalem church led by James and Peter, believed that Jesus was crucified and assuming that they did believe that Jesus was crucified, then that doesn't necessarily require that the Jerusalem church, believed that his crucifixion has a theological significance (atonement).

How can we be assured that The Jerusalem church did believe that Jesus was crucified and his crucifixion has significance?

Please Note: Answers should exclude any textual proofs from the Epistle of James.

  • 2
    You have asked a question regarding what James believed, then you have excluded quotations from his writing, making your question impossible to answer. It is abundantly clear from the two epistles of Peter that he was in complete agreement with Paul.
    – Nigel J
    Dec 21, 2021 at 16:11
  • the authorship and dating of the epistles of James,is a controversal matter,Most scholars consider the epistle to be pseudepigrapha ..debunking those critics ,requieres other texts..eg; the epistles of Paul ,as many of them attribute most of them to Paul.. Dec 21, 2021 at 16:15
  • 1
    You state an opinion by saying 'most' 'scholars' etc etc. If you are going to listen to every academic opinion expressed from every quarter, you will arrive at no conclusions whatsoever. One either believes the entirety of the book called 'The Bible' or one does not.
    – Nigel J
    Dec 21, 2021 at 16:18
  • 1- it is not my opinion , that is the way of the academic scholars .check wiki en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epistle_of_James#Dating. 2- The critics don't trust the authorship of the book to be attributed to James ,but they have no problem accepting some pauline epistles, so why not to debunk them using the sources outside the epistle of James?do you believe, we have no clue about the belief of jerusalem church of crucifixion outside the epistle of James?! Dec 21, 2021 at 16:27
  • I shall leave you to the 'critics'. And I shall stay with the faithful who receive the word of God and do it. Regards, and no further comment.
    – Nigel J
    Dec 21, 2021 at 16:29

1 Answer 1


Peter (Jerusalem Church)

On the day of the Pentecost (50 days after resurrection/Easter, 10 days after Ascension), Peter preached to the crowd about Jesus's crucifixion and resurrection, thus demonstrating that Peter (who represents the other 10 apostles) held the same belief as St. Paul, who came to believe later.

It is recorded in Acts 2.

Acts 2:32-36:

32 “God raised Jesus from the dead, and we are all witnesses of this. 33 Now he is exalted to the place of highest honor in heaven, at God’s right hand. And the Father, as he had promised, gave him the Holy Spirit to pour out upon us, just as you see and hear today. 34 For David himself never ascended into heaven, yet he said,

      ‘The Lord said to my Lord,
         “Sit in the place of honor at my right hand
 35   until I humble your enemies,
         making them a footstool under your feet.”’

36 “So let everyone in Israel know for certain that God has made this Jesus, whom you crucified, to be both Lord and Messiah!”

As Peter's belief of the atoning significance of Jesus's death, see his letter 1 Peter, specifically 1 Peter 2:24:

He personally carried our sins in his body on the cross so that we can be dead to sin and live for what is right. By his wounds you are healed.

For more in depth discussion on Peter's view of the atonement, see book chapter First Peter and Atonement Theology by Greg Rosauer (part of the 2019 book For It Stands In Scripture: Essays in Honor of W. Edward Glenny).


Paul based his conviction that Jesus died and was raised again on his encounter with the living Jesus on the road to Damascus (Acts 9:1-31) as well as the personal testimony of 500+ people who saw that Jesus was alive (1 Cor 15:1-9):

1 Let me now remind you, dear brothers and sisters, of the Good News I preached to you before. You welcomed it then, and you still stand firm in it. 2 It is this Good News that saves you if you continue to believe the message I told you—unless, of course, you believed something that was never true in the first place.

3 I passed on to you what was most important and what had also been passed on to me. Christ died for our sins, just as the Scriptures said. 4 He was buried, and he was raised from the dead on the third day, just as the Scriptures said. 5 He was seen by Peter and then by the Twelve. 6 After that, he was seen by more than 500 of his followers at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have died. 7 Then he was seen by James and later by all the apostles. 8 Last of all, as though I had been born at the wrong time, I also saw him. 9 For I am the least of all the apostles. In fact, I’m not even worthy to be called an apostle after the way I persecuted God’s church.

  • thank you GratefulDisciple..have we any clues from the epistles of St. Paul? Dec 21, 2021 at 16:39
  • @ميخائيلمينا Added clues from one of the undisputed epistles of St. Paul: 1 Corinthians. Dec 21, 2021 at 16:48
  • thanx I appreciate it. Dec 21, 2021 at 17:34

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .