Did any Catholic theologians think the State ever has the right to correct the Church in theological matters?
For example, when Pope John XXII (r. 1316-1334) denied the then-material (i.e., not-yet-infallibly-defined) dogma that the souls of the deceased destined to heaven behold the Beatific Vision immediately after death, he had
the gravest responsibilities before the tribunal of history [since] he offered the entire Church the humiliating spectacle of the princes [French King Philip the Fair, Emperor Louis IV the Bavarian, Philip VI of Valois], clergy [cardinals] and universities [Chancellor Jean Gerson of U. of Paris's theology college, the Sorbonne] steering the Pontiff onto the right path of Catholic theological tradition, and placed himself in the very difficult situation of having to contradict himself.
—Cdl. Alfredo Idelfonso Schuster, O.S.B., Gesù Cristo nella Storia della Chiesa (Benedictina Editrice, Rome 1996), 116–17, quoted in De Mattei, Love for the Papacy and Filial Resistance to the Pope in the History of the Church