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Reformed Protestants believe that God selected individuals at the time of the beginning of the world and predestined those individuals for salvation.

Orthodox believe that God knew at the time of the beginning which individuals would choose to believe and on the basis of that foreknowledge predestined those individuals for salvation.

Is there any theological school of thought which believes that what God predestined is that salvation would be given by grace through faith -- in other words, that God predestined a process, not a set of persons?

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Yes, classical Arminianism would hold a view similar to what you are describing. But I've met people who don't necessarily agree with Arminianism on everything, yet when they read passages like Ephesians 1 they place the emphasis on the fact that we are predestined "in Christ" - in other words it is Christ as a means of salvation and adoption that was determined by God - not individuals.

Ephesians 1:3-6 -

Praise be to the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us in the heavenly realms with every spiritual blessing in Christ. 4 For he chose us in him before the creation of the world to be holy and blameless in his sight. In love 5 he predestined us for adoption to sonship through Jesus Christ, in accordance with his pleasure and will— 6 to the praise of his glorious grace, which he has freely given us in the One he loves.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arminianism

God predestines the elect to a glorious future: Predestination is not the predetermination of who will believe, but rather the predetermination of the believer's future inheritance. The elect are therefore predestined to sonship through adoption, glorification, and eternal life.

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    Those whom He foreknew He also predestined (by grace through faith) to be conformed to the image of Christ (Romans 8:29). It is individuals as well as the process that are foreknown but the predestination is not unto salvation but unto conformity. It is the call that is unto salvation. Nov 9, 2021 at 2:45
  • Yes, that is a reasonable summary of the view - the distinction between foreknowledge of individuals' decisions and predestination of salvation history is helpful.
    – Zanarkand
    Nov 9, 2021 at 14:40

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