The following according to LDS teaching is what happened to the Catholic/Universal Church (made up of people) that prompted Joseph Smith to restore or give us "Another Gospel of Jesus Christ," The Book of Mormon.
"What Happened to the Church? The Apostles were killed during a time when the entire Church was being persecuted. Nero, a Roman emperor, was the first to make laws to exterminate Christians, in about A.D. 65. Under his reign, thousands were cruelly killed. A second round of persecutions began in about A.D. 93 under Emperor Domitian. Succeeding emperors continued torturing and killing Christians. As a result of these persecutions, thousands of Christians were martyred. Many others apostatized.
In about A.D. 324 Constantine became the emperor of the Roman Empire. He made Christianity a legal religion, stopping centuries of persecution. His actions linked the church to the government, and corrupt church leaders began seeking power and the honors of the world.
Teachers within the church began to adopt false religious concepts from Greek philosophy and pagan religions. Gospel ordinances were corrupted, and false ceremonies were introduced. Even though the church still taught some truth, the true Church of Christ and the priesthood were no longer on the earth. And as Christianity spread to various parts of the world—including to Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas—new churches were formed and grew. None of these churches, however, was the true Church, since the Lord had already taken priesthood authority and priesthood keys from the earth.
What Happened to the Scriptures? The eighth article of faith says, “We believe the Bible to be the word of God as far as it is translated correctly.” We know from the Book of Mormon that the scriptures that came from the Jewish people had many plain and precious parts taken from them (see 1 Ne. 13:23–29).
During the time of the Apostasy, precious doctrines were lost from the Bible through carelessness, uninspired translation, or deliberate efforts to erase the truth. A restoration of that lost doctrine and truth was necessary. The Book of Mormon and other scripture revealed to the Prophet Joseph Smith brought back many of those plain and precious parts of the gospel.
A Light out of the Darkness The Lord knew the Great Apostasy would take place (see 2 Thes. 2:3), so He prepared a way for His gospel to be restored. In the centuries leading up to the First Vision in 1820, various translations of the Bible became widely available through the newly developed printing process of movable type. Because the church did not want people to read the word of God, many were imprisoned or martyred for reading or owning scriptures. But during this time, the Lord inspired people to begin fighting against the abuses and evil they saw within the church. This period is called the Protestant Reformation. The Reformation eventually created an environment in which the Lord could restore His authority and truth to the earth.
Today we can be members of “the only true and living church upon the face of the whole earth” (D&C 1:30) because the Lord restored His gospel and conferred priesthood authority to the Prophet Joseph Smith to organize His Church (see D&C 27; D&C 65; D&C 128:18–21).
We are blessed to live in this time, when the gospel in its fulness has been restored—a time when you can go to church, bear your testimony, and read the scriptures."
Keep in mind that according to Joseph Smith's own testimony he was told by Jesus Christ Himself not to join any "sect/church" because they were all corrupt, therefore it had to be restored.
Yet, Jesus Christ stated that the "gates of hell will not prevail against it." The Apostle Paul states at Galatians 1:8, "But even though we or an angel from heaven, should preach to you a gospel "contrary" (or another one) to that which we have preached to you, let him be accursed."
Also, Hebrews 8:6-13 explains clearly that the Lord made a new covenant starting at vs6, "But now He has obtained a more excellent ministry, by as much as He is also the mediator of a better covenant, which has been enacted on better promises." That is, vs10, "I will put My laws into their minds, And I will write them upon their hearts."
Since there is a better covenant that has with stood all attacks upon the Church which according to Jude 3, "which was once for all delivered to the saints," how can the LDS church claim to be, "the only true and living church upon the face of the whole earth?"