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What is the bible such that contains the intersection, of agreement in the word, between Jews and Christians? It seems that it's the Torah, is this correct? Are there more books?

I said intersection because AFAIK, Christianity have its roots in Jewish religion.

If there's no such bible, what is the approximate bible or bibles that have this?

Thank you in advance.

PD. I don't know much about this yet, so correct if I said something wrong.

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  • 2
    Does this answer your question?
    – Matthew
    Jul 31 at 16:10
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    The Torah, The Prophets, and The Writings, make up the Tanakh or the Jewish Bible. That is to say, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy, all of the prophets and the wisdom literature which includes writings such as Psalms. Where they disagree with Christianity is in who the Mashiach (Messiah) will be. They reject the New Testament which says Jesus of Nazareth is the promised Messiah.
    – Lesley
    Jul 31 at 16:16
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    See Masoretic Text, Septuagint, and Samaritan Pentateuch. Christianity represents a major reinterpretation of ancient Second Temple Judaism, meaning that their main contentions are not so much over the text itself, as much as over its intended meaning.
    – Lucian
    Aug 1 at 4:04
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    @PeterTurner It seems to me there are scores of questions which are really only applicable for Roman Catholics to answer. I don't mind, no one else kicks up a fuss either. But here we have a question mainly for Protestants and you are pouring all over it and want to censure it. Is that fair? Aug 16 at 23:21
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    @AndrewShanks all I'm saying is that you can't answer "what do jews and Christians agree with in the Bible" in one sentence. I totally didn't notice that Veronica employed the whole "Christians, not Catholics" fallacy, but now that you mention it, I do in fact, take umbrage with that. If you're asking Reformed Christians, or Protestants or more to the point, Sola Scriptura Christians, then please limit it to that, but please don't ask about "Christians, not Catholics", if we have to be PC about everything else, we should at least be factual about this.
    – Peter Turner
    Aug 17 at 0:39
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This answer compares the text and the interpretation of the Jewish Scriptures with the text and the interpretation of the Christian Bible.

Text comparison

As you can see in the table in the wikipedia article The Old Testament, all books (not just the 5 books of Torah) in the Hebrew Bible (which Judaism adherents use) are included in the Christian Bible.

The modern translations for both are based on the almost similar edition of the Hebrew text, which in turn is largely based on the Masoretic text.

But Judaism

  • names the book collection the Hebrew Bible (also called the Tanakh),
  • groups them into 24 books (combining 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel, for example),
  • orders them differently: Torah (Pentateuch), Nevi'im (Prophetic), followed by Ketuvim (Writings), and
  • also includes the Mishnah as Scriptures: the 3rd century AD codification of the Oral Law (believed to originate from Moses).

Interpretation comparison

Although the text of the OT and the Tanakh are very similar, there are passages that are interpreted very differently because in Christianity the Messiah has been identified as Jesus Christ. Since the time of Jesus, Paul, and the 12 apostles, Christianity has traditionally interpreted certain verses as prophetically / typologically about Jesus, but of course Judaism (who at best saw Jesus as a misguided Rabbi) interprets those verses differently. Verses quoted by the Christian New Testament have especially different interpretation; see Joel Kalvesmaki's Table of Old Testament quotes in the New Testament, in English translation (link courtesy of Nigel J's answer).

The International Bible Society website has an article Do Jews and Christians basically have the same religion? discussing the areas of agreement and disagreement between today's Judaism and Christianity.

Example areas of agreement:

  • perfect creation of the world out of nothing by an infinite God
  • the entrance of sin into this world via the temptation of another transcendent being called Satan
  • the judgement of God on sin
  • the necessity of atonement for sin
  • basic understanding of God
  • God's covenant relationship with His people
  • assembling of God's people together for worship
  • divine plan for history

Example areas of disagreement:

  • Judaism does not accept the central Christian teaching that Jesus Christ is the Messiah foretold in the Old Testament

  • Christianity sees the following law areas as no longer binding because they have been fulfilled in Christ. See here, here, here, and here for explanation.

    • Jewish feasts and festivals
    • ceremonial (such as circumcision)
    • dietary (such as rules for Kosher food)
    • dress code (such as rules against weaving cloth from different materials), and
    • civil laws (such as stoning as punishment)
  • Christianity centers the atonement on the work of Jesus Christ, while in Judaism this atonement is accomplished through sacrifices, prayer, righteous acts, and God’s mercy

  • Christianity tends to regard this life as preparation for the next life (after resurrection of the body), but Judaism's focus is on this present world, where life is meant to be rich and full.

Of special mention is the Messianic Judaism movements whose practice and culture are similar to Judaism but who acknowledge Jesus as the Messiah (although a minority don't subscribe to the doctrine of the Trinity). Unlike most Christians, they still practice some of the OT laws listed in the 2nd bullet point above.

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In Paul's declaration to the Corinthian Church he references 'the scriptures' in support of his gospel concerning Christ dying for sins and rising from the dead. The scriptures he speaks of are the Hebrew scriptures :

Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand; 2By which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain.

3For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; 4And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures: 5And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve:

6After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep. 7After that, he was seen of James; then of all the apostles. 8And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time. 9For I am the least of the apostles, that am not meet to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God. [1 Corinthians 15:1-9 KJV]

This table prepared by Joel Kalvesmaki lists the texts from the Hebrew Old Testament which Jesus himself, and his apostles, quoted from and lists their quotes in the Greek New Testament scriptures.

Thus can be seen the correlation between the Old Testament scriptures of the Jews and the Greek New Testament scriptures which document Jesus' life on earth and the subsequent writings of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ.

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  • This has the problem i outlined in my comment
    – Al Brown
    Aug 1 at 6:37
  • @AlBrown I am only referencing 66 books : the OT and the NT.
    – Nigel J
    Aug 1 at 6:41
  • Exactly. Np sir. Goodnight and God bless
    – Al Brown
    Aug 1 at 7:02
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The Christian Bible has an Old Testament and a New Testament: the NT was produced by the Apostles or with apostolic approval. The OT is the Hebrew Bible.

As I said before, the Protestant OT is essentially the same as the Hebrew Bible (which the Jews call the Tanakh).

The Roman Catholic OT differs in that it has kept sections which originated from the Septuagint version. For example, you could look at the RC Jerusalem Bible online at https://bibletold.com/esther/ and compare Esther 8:12 in this version with the King James and the Jewish JPS version at biblehub.com: the Jerusalem version has an extra 21 verses at 8:12. Compare also Esther 4:17 and chapter 10. In addition to differences within books the RC OT has extra books not found in the Tanakh or the Protestant OT.

The Septuagint was a Greek translation of the Hebrew OT produced before the birth of Christ for those Jews who could no longer read the Hebrew. (When the OT is quoted in the New Testament the reading is often taken from the Septuagint. This, we believe, was not an emphatic endorsement of the Septuagint... it does show, though, that it was not altogether bad, and it shows that a proper understanding of the intention of the text is more important than accuracy of the text.)

When in the second century Jews began to see differences between the Septuagint and the Hebrew versons they abandoned the Septuagint readings.

At the time of the Reformation the Protestant reformers abandoned the Septuagint derived texts in favour of the Hebrew Masoretic text, though in a few small cases they retained the Septuagint reading (- such as in Psalm 22:16 "they have pierced my hands and my feet" rather than the Masoretic "like a lion are my hands and my feet": the Dead Sea Scrolls reading vindicates the reformers choice of the Septuagint reading in this case.)

What is really important to understand is that the Jews tend to see the moral commandments of their Tanakh encapsulated in the 10 commandments in a different light to Protestants. Judaism would tend to see these commandments as something it is possible to please God by obeying perfectly. Evangelical Protestants maintain that it is impossible to keep them perfectly and that they were designed to show us our failure and need of a Saviour. The Protestant understanding is that the 10 commandments must be kept 1 Out of love to God; 2 zealously; 3 from the heart; 4 in order to bring glory to God; 5 Because God commands them; 6 that where commandment forbids (eg thou shalt not bear false witness, thou shalt not kill) the opposite positive virtue is to be understood as also commanded; 7. Each commandment is to be understood as forbidding the worst example sin and as representing a whole family of sins (eg thou shalt not commit adultery includes all the family of sins of sexual impurity such as lust of the eyes, immodest dressing, etc). (An example work having this teaching would be "The Marrow of Modern Divinity" by E. Fisher, but you can find it everywhere).

According to the evangelical understanding, if we fail to always keep the 10 commandments always out of love to God, zealously, etc, then we have failed and need a Saviour... the 10 commandments were designed to show we need a Saviour. Once we trust Jesus as our Saviour then we try to keep the commandments not in order to try to win God's favour but because we already have it and want to try to please Him.

Jews today, if they are religious at all, and many are not, have a Judaism in which it is up to them to try to gain God's favour by their own obedience. For Protestants salvation comes by trusting in the shed blood and in the perfect obedience of the Lord Jesus Christ, and by a repentance resulting from confident faith in God's mercy offered through Christ alone.

[As an aside, praise God, many Jews today are Christian, with about 1.6 million in the USA alone -https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_converts_to_Christianity_from_Judaism]

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