On 14 July 1570, Pope St. Pius V promulgated Quo Primum, abrogating rites less than 200 years old:

This new rite alone [the Tridentine Liturgy] is to be used unless approval of the practice of saying Mass differently was given at the very time of the institution and confirmation of the church by Apostolic See at least 200 years ago, or unless there has prevailed a custom of a similar kind which has been continuously followed for a period of not less than 200 years, in which most cases We in no wise rescind their above-mentioned prerogative or custom.

Which rites were less than 200 years old in 1570?
Was he referring to Protestant or other liturgies lacking "confirmation of the church by Apostolic See"?

  • Why would Protestant Rites need confirmation from Rome? – Ken Graham Jul 18 at 23:56
  • @KenGraham I'm wondering if Pope St. Pius V's stipulation was directed toward Protestant liturgies. – Geremia Jul 19 at 3:03
  • The two centuries period seems related to pre-reform movements, such as the Hussites, which could have de facto influenced the rites of neighboring catholic regions. – Lucian Jul 19 at 13:17

Bonniwell, O.P., A History of the Dominican Liturgy p. 295:

Pius V Abolishes Late Mediaeval Rites

In 1568, when the new Roman breviary appeared, Pius V issued the Bull Quod a nobis by which were swept away all the numerous variations and exuberances then common in the Roman Rite, and established one uniform Mass and one uniform method of saying Mass. All patriarchates, cathedrals, colleges, parishes, all secular priests as well as all Religious Orders, irrespective of what privileges they enjoyed, were ordered to adopt the revision. To this comprehensive ruling a single exception was made: they who had followed uninterruptedly for over two hundred years a rite approved by the Holy See were not included in this law. The idea of preserving the older liturgical forms was not peculiar to Pius V; Grancolas tells us that at the Council of Trent while some of the bishops wished to have only one rite, other bishops defended the special rites of their dioceses. [Commentarius historicus, lib. I, cap. V.] In conformity to the sincere wish of the Church to preserve the really old rites, the Order of Preachers retained the liturgical uses which it had been observing without interruption for over three centuries.

Thus, it seems Trent and Pope St. Pius V were concerned with young rites peculiar to dioceses, not with Protestant liturgies.

Ibid., p. 203, also mentions the Diocese of Lucera in Southern Italy, which used the Dominican rite for 90 years

until 1568, when Pius V abolished all the later rites. While the rite of the Friars Preachers was old enough to merit exemption, the Diocese of Lucera [which] had been using that rite […] was obliged to adopt the new version of the Roman Rite.

  • Although the Dominican Rite existed more than 200 years prior to 1570, it was removed from the proper usage of the Diocese of Lucera, because it did not belong to the diocese. The Dominican Rite was meant to belong to the Dominican Order. It was not a Rite that was created between 1370 and 1570! – Ken Graham Jul 20 at 6:40
  • @KenGraham Yes, but that diocese adopted it as its own local rite for 90 years. – Geremia Jul 20 at 17:05
  • You should incorporate that note into your response for clarity, if in fact that is genuinely the situation. – Ken Graham Jul 20 at 19:22

New liturgical rites created between 1370 and 1570?

Pope St. Pius V in publishing Quo Primum desired to united the Roman Rite under one unified Latin Usage in the West. Those ”Rites” which had existed for less than 200 years old were forced to adopt the Rite used in Rome!

Most of these newly creates Liturgical Usages only varied slightly from the Roman Rite in usage at Rome.

Some examples are as follows:

  • Missale Aboense first book printed for use in Finland was printed in Lübeck in 1488.

Although some diocese were actually using that specific Rite at that time, almost every diocese had it’s own liturgical books.

From 1474 until Pope Pius V's 1570 text, there were at least 14 different printings that purported to present the text of the Mass as celebrated in Rome, rather than elsewhere, and which therefore were published under the title of "Roman Missal". These were produced in Milan, Venice, Paris and Lyon. Even these show variations. Local Missals, such as the Parisian Missal, of which at least 16 printed editions appeared between 1481 and 1738, showed more important differences.

The Roman Missal that Pope Pius V issued at the request of the Council of Trent, gradually established uniformity within the Western Church after a period that had witnessed regional variations in the choice of Epistles, Gospels, and prayers at the Offertory, the Communion, and the beginning and end of Mass. With the exception of a few dioceses and religious orders, the use of this Missal was made obligatory, giving rise to the 400-year period when the Roman-Rite Mass took the form now known as the Tridentine Mass. - Pre-Tridentine Mass

Dom Gueranger in his monumental work, The Liturgical Year makes mention of this several times. Even in Dom Guéranger’s day unity of the Latin liturgy was still an issue.

The Council’s desired reform of the Missal is irreversible. That, at least, is what the Pope said. “Let all everywhere adopt and observe what has been handed down by the Holy Roman Church, the Mother and Teacher of the other churches, and let Masses not be sung or read according to any other formula than that of this Missal published by Us. This ordinance applies henceforth, now, and forever, throughout all the provinces of the Christian world…: This Missal is to be used by all churches.” Such is what Pope St. Pius V wrote in his Apostolic Constitution, Quo Primum, by which he promulgated the Missal of Trent in 1570.

Still, when Dom Prosper Guaranger, considered by most the founding father of the Liturgical Movement, reopened the Benedictine Priory of Solesmes in 1832, there were nearly as many Missals in use in France as there were dioceses — more than 250 years after Pius V had promulgated Trent’s singular book. One bishop observed that he had five different missals in his own diocese alone. (To our bishops who may be reading: can you imagine the same phenomena today on your confirmation rounds?) Upon Gueranger’s death in 1875, efforts to bring a unified Roman Missal over the mountains into many dioceses of France were well underway.

Which liturgical Latin Rites were 200 years old or older in 1570?

Quo Primum refers to those Rites which traditionally used within the Tridentine Latin Rite of the West.

The following are a list of Latin Usages or less inaccurately known as Latin Rites which were at least 200 years old in 1570:

  • Gallican Rite Defunct
  • Sarum Rite
  • Use of Hereford
  • Use of York
  • Bangor
  • Lincoln
  • Westminster Abbey
  • Durham Rite Dom Gueranger mentions that the Bishop of Durham had the privilege of mitigating the order of execution, even if condemned by the King within his diocese.
  • Ambrosian Rite
  • Mozarabic Rite
  • Lyonese Rite
  • Cologne Usage took the the option of taking the Roman Rite of Pius V probably as a counter measure against Protestant influences.
  • Carthusian Rite
  • Benedictine Rite
  • Esztergom Use Defunct in the 17th century.
  • Benevento Rite
  • Slavonic Rite
  • Rite of Braga Still in use occasionally.
  • Nidaros rite in Norway
  • Uppsala Use: One of local rites that remained legitimate even after this decree were abandoned voluntarily, especially in the 19th century.
  • Rite of Paris: Defunct, although over 200 years old in 1570, lost its privileges due to altering the Rite without the approval of Rome and ordered to take the Roman Rite.

The Catholic Encyclopedia applied the word "rite" also to the practices followed (to some extent even now, a century later) by certain Catholic religious orders, while at the same time stating that they in fact followed the Roman Rite:

  • Carmelite Rite
  • Cistercian Rite
  • Dominican Rite
  • Premonstratensian or Norbertine Rite

The Celtic Rite is known for giving us the added usage of the Easter Fire in our present day Easter Vigil Masses! However the the English bishops forced those of the Celtic Rite to use the Rites in usage in England in 1127.

Pre-Tridentine Mass refers to the variants of the liturgical rite of Mass in Rome before 1570, when, with his bull Quo primum, Pope Pius V made the Roman Missal, as revised by him, obligatory throughout the Latin-Rite or Western Church, except for those places and congregations whose distinct rites could demonstrate an Usage of 200 years or more!

The Tridentine Mass or as they say now the Extraordinary Form of the Mass is the old form of Mass that was authorised for use throughout the Roman Catholic Church from 1570 until it was replaced following the second Vatican Council in the 1969. (One year less than 400 years itself!)


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