We read in Jn 16:7-11 (NRSVCE), the pre-crucifixion message of Jesus to his disciples:
"Nevertheless I tell you the truth: it is to your advantage that I go away, for if I do not go away, the Advocate will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you. And when he comes, he will prove the world wrong about sin and righteousness and judgment: about sin, because they do not believe in me; about righteousness, because I am going to the Father and you will see me no longer; about judgment, because the ruler of this world has been condemned."
In some versions, like the NIV, we find the phrase 'prince of this world' in place of 'ruler'.
A prince is subordinate to the king and is required to seek permission of the throne before executing something. But a ruler, in the general sense, has powers of his own and is not ordinarily subordinate to anyone. Now, in texts like Job, we see the Devil seeking permission from God before undertaking some activity according to his own will, which in a way equates him to a prince, though an evil one.
My question therefore is, according to the Catholic Church, whom does Jesus refer to as “ruler of this world” in Jn 16:11 and what is the interpretation of said term?