We see the Lord telling the Israelite at Ex 20:5:

Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me.

We also read at Deut 6: 13-15 :

Fear the Lord your God, serve him only and take your oaths in his name. Do not follow other gods, the gods of the peoples around you; for the Lord your God, who is among you, is a jealous God and his anger will burn against you, and he will destroy you from the face of the land.

A person is said to be jealous when some one else usurps the commitment due to him/her, and his/her jealousy is directed to the other person who plays the usurper. We come to a situation where God's “jealousy” is directed against the “other gods” who usurp the commitment of Israelite. But then, how can someone who is non-existent, usurp someone else's love and affection? Are we therefore, to believe that there have been Lesser Gods in the Scheme of Things, who are not devils but are not adversaries of human beings? My question therefore is: What are the teachings of Catholic Church on the existence or otherwise of Lesser Gods in the context of Ex 20:5?

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    There is no warrant in the text for the concept (introduced by yourself) of a 'lesser' god. The 'gods' of the nations around Israel were (all of them) false deities, not 'lesser gods'.
    – Nigel J
    Mar 2 '21 at 13:05

The teaching of the Catholic Church is that there is only one God in three divine persons. I wouldn’t try to read so much into the text here. People have believed many things outside of what God has revealed (including belief in other gods). Even though they do not exist, people would make sacrifice to them. In my opinion, all God is saying in these passages is to not worship false or fake deities

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