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Whilst there are other questions I have found similar to this one, they do not specifically seem to explain the exact start date for the 70 week prophecy in Daniel regarding the command to rebuild Jerusalem.

If we read the Daniel 9:25 prophecy, verse 25 talks about "restore and rebuild Jerusalem".

Cyrus decrees in Ezra 1 to Return to Jerusalem and Build the Temple

In the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, to fulfill the word of the LORD spoken through Jeremiah, the LORD stirred the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia to send a proclamation throughout his kingdom and to put it in writing as follows:

2“This is what Cyrus king of Persia says:

‘The LORD, the God of heaven, who has given me all the kingdoms of the earth, has appointed me to build a house for Him at Jerusalem in Judah.

Zerubbabel is among those who return to carry out this decree.

Enemies of the tribes obtain a decree to stop construction

King Artaxerxes, in the first year of his reign, after being told by the "enemies of Judah and Ephraim" and also consulting the original decree given by Cyrus, believes the Israelites are in breach of said decree (in that only the Temple may be built) and stops the entire process.

Ezra 4 12 "Let it be known to the king that the Jews who came from you to us have returned to Jerusalem. And they are rebuilding that rebellious and wicked city, restoring its walls, and repairing its foundations." 21 Now, therefore, issue an order for these men to stop, so that this city will not be rebuilt until I so order.

We obviously know that he was told a falsehood by the enemies of Judah and Ephraim about what was actually going on in Jerusalem in that they were not rebuilding city walls as Artaxerxes was led to believe, however, he stopped the process nonetheless.

Moving forward in history...we know in Ezra 6, after the death of Artaxerxes, construction restarted by Zerubbabel, and that King Darius was approached by Tattenai the governor of the region west of the Euphrates to confirm the decree to rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem. The response from Darius:

Exra 6:1 Thus King Darius ordered a search of the archives stored in the treasury of Babylon. 2And a scroll was found in the fortress of Ecbatana, in the province of Media, with the following written on it:

Memorandum:

3In the first year of King Cyrus, he issued a decree concerning the house of God in Jerusalem:

Let the house be rebuilt as a place for offering sacrifices, and let its foundations be firmly laid. It is to be sixty cubits high and sixty cubits wide,a 4with three layers of cut stones and one of timbers. The costs are to be paid from the royal treasury.

5Furthermore, the gold and silver articles of the house of God, which Nebuchadnezzar took from the temple in Jerusalem and carried to Babylon, must also be returned to the temple in Jerusalem and deposited in the house of God.

6Therefore Darius decreed:

To Tattenai governor of the region west of the Euphrates,b Shethar-bozenai, and your associates and officials in the region:

You must stay away from that place! 7Leave this work on the house of God alone. Let the governor and elders of the Jews rebuild this house of God on its original site.

Ezra obtains letters from Artaxerxes and returns from Babylon

Ezra is granted authority by king Artaxerxes in the 7th year of his reign. However, it appears to me that the letter given to Ezra by the kind at that time is still only for Temple, its services, and for the self governance of Judah. It does not appear to make any reference to the rebuilding of the city itself.

Ezra 7:12 Artaxerxes, king of kings.

To Ezra the priest, the scribe of the Law of the God of heaven:

Greetings.d

13I hereby decree that any volunteers among the Israelites in my kingdom, including the priests and Levites, may go up with you to Jerusalem. 14You are sent by the king and his seven counselors to evaluate Judah and Jerusalem according to the Law of your God, which is in your hand. Ezra7: 23 Whatever is commanded by the God of heaven must be done diligently for His house.

Some 12 or 13 years later, in the 20th year of Artaxerxes reign, Nehemiah the cupbearer asks the king for permission to rebuild the walls and gates of the city

Nehemiah 2:4 “...If it pleases the king, and if your servant has found favor in your sight, I ask that you send me to Judah, to the city where my fathers are buried, so that I may rebuild it.” 7 I also said to him, “If it pleases the king, may letters be given to me for the governors west of the Euphrates,b so that they will grant me safe passage until I reach Judah. 8And may I have a letter to Asaph, keeper of the king’s forest, so that he will give me timber to make beams for the gates of the citadel to the temple, for the city wall, and for the house I will occupy.”

My point of interest is the original prophecy in Daniel 9 stating restore and rebuild Jerusalem. The decree given by Cyrus is only for the Temple, then Nehemiah is given authority to build the city walls and gates.

Finally, remember the prophecy given in Isaiah 44):

26 who confirms the message of His servant and fulfills the counsel of His messengers, who says of Jerusalem, ‘She will be inhabited,’ and of the cities of Judah, ‘They will be rebuilt, and I will restore their ruins,’ 27who says to the depths of the sea, ‘Be dry, and I will dry up your currents,’ 28who says of Cyrus, ‘My shepherd will fulfill all that I desire,’ who says of Jerusalem, ‘She will be rebuilt,’ and of the temple, ‘Let its foundation be laid.’

Which of the above is the official decree that fulfills the explanation of the prophecy by the angel Gabriel in Daniel 9:25?

  1. The first decree given to build the Temple by Cyrus in 539 B.C and overseen by Zerubbabel (Cyrus lived 600-530 B.C)
  2. the second decree given by Darius the Great 522-486 B.C (what year was this decree given... 521 B.C?)
  3. The authority given to Ezra by Artaxerxes in 7th year of his reign (457 B.C)
  4. or the letters given to Nehemiah by Artexerxes to build the city walls and gates? (445 B.C)

Dates for the above are based on Wikipedia (Cyrus The Great , Darius The Great or Hystaspes, Artaxerxes I)

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  • Technically, the first one, but with the added mention that Daniel conflates Cyrus and Darius, as can easily be glimpsed from its (fifth and) sixth chapter(s); as such, Cyrus' first year (~540 BC, mentioned in 9:25), marking the issuing of the verdict, is to be reinterpreted as Darius' first year (~420 BC, mentioned in 9:1 and 11:1-4), 490 years before the destruction of the second temple (AD 70); an in-depth explanation can be found here.
    – Lucian
    Sep 1, 2021 at 23:11

5 Answers 5

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OP: Which of the above is the official decree that fulfills the explanation of the prophecy by the angel Gabriel in Daniel 9:25?

  1. The first decree given to build the Temple by Cyrus in 539 B.C and overseen by Zerubbabel (Cryus lived 600-530 B.C)
  2. the second decree given by Darius the Great 522-486 B.C (what year was this decree given... 521 B.C?)
  3. The authority given to Ezra by Artaxerxes in 7th year of his reign (457 B.C)
  4. or the letters given to Nehemiah by Artexerxes to build the city walls and gates? (445 B.C)

The answer is #3 because it is the only one to line up with Daniel’s prophecy of 490 years (70 weeks of 7) to Messiah and the decree to rebuild Jerusalem.

1 CYRUS

If we start with the decree of Cyrus in 538 BC, then to Christ’s death (the cutting off) at either of the years 30 or 33 AD, we are at plus 80 weeks (560 years). If we start at 535, then we’re still at plus 80 weeks. Or even if only to Christ’s birth, we are still looking at plus 70 weeks.

Besides, this command is only to build a house in Jerusalem.

This decree does not work.

Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia, The LORD God of heaven hath given me all the kingdoms of the earth; and he hath charged me to build him an house at Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Ezra 1:2

2 DARIUS

This decree takes place in 520 BC. It is basically a reiteration of Cyrus’ decree. It also has the same problems as the decree of Cyrus. It takes too much time to Christ and the decree is not about rebuilding Jerusalem, but only the temple (house of God).

Then Darius the king made a decree, and search was made in the house of the rolls, where the treasures were laid up in Babylon. And there was found at Achmetha, in the palace that is in the province of the Medes, a roll, and therein was a record thus written: In the first year of Cyrus the king the same Cyrus the king made a decree concerning the house of God at Jerusalem, Let the house be builded, the place where they offered sacrifices, and let the foundations thereof be strongly laid; the height thereof threescore cubits, and the breadth thereof threescore cubits; Ezra 6:1-3

4 ARTAXERXES to NEHEMIAH

This decree begins to fulfill Daniel’s prophecy, but has a timing problem. The decree was given in 445/4 BC. Counting to Christ’s death in 30 or 33 AD, we get to 68 weeks. This is too short given Daniel’s timeline.

Some have adjusted the timeline to make the count a prophetic year (360 days), rather than a solar year (365 days). This “adds” time (14 years). If I make the adjustment, I end at the same year of baptism of Christ in 26 AD and death/burial/resurrection in 30 AD. This ties to the next decree that works.

My notes on this suggest Africanus and Sir Robert Anderson attempt the same prophetic year calculations, though they arrive at different end points. I assume the number of intercalary years accounts for a difference.

Moreover I said unto the king, If it please the king, let letters be given me to the governors beyond the river, that they may convey me over till I come into Judah; And a letter unto Asaph the keeper of the king's forest, that he may give me timber to make beams for the gates of the palace which appertained to the house, and for the wall of the city, and for the house that I shall enter into. And the king granted me, according to the good hand of my God upon me. Neh 2:7-8

3 ARTAXERXES to EZRA

The year given for Nehemiah’s first arrival is accurate at 445 BC, but using the same starting point, the year of the decree to Ezra would be 458 BC, not 457. This decree actually is the valid starting decree. It is based on a “normal” solar year from 458 BC and ends at 69 ½ weeks of the 70 at Christ’s death in 30 AD. If we use Christ’s death in 33 AD, then the full 70 weeks have been fulfilled, though “alignment” questions linger.

Now this is the copy of the letter that the king Artaxerxes gave unto Ezra the priest, the scribe, even a scribe of the words of the commandments of the LORD, and of his statutes to Israel. Artaxerxes, king of kings, unto Ezra the priest, a scribe of the law of the God of heaven, perfect peace, and at such a time. I make a decree, that all they of the people of Israel, and of his priests and Levites, in my realm, which are minded of their own freewill to go up to Jerusalem, go with thee. Ezra 7:11-13

The decree is to go to Jerusalem and to do what?

And all the silver and gold that thou canst find in all the province of Babylon, with the freewill offering of the people, and of the priests, offering willingly for the house of their God which is in Jerusalem: That thou mayest buy speedily with this money bullocks, rams, lambs, with their meat offerings and their drink offerings, and offer them upon the altar of the house of your God which is in Jerusalem. Ezra 7:16-17

Take money and make vessels and offerings, but notice the next verse of the decree.

And whatsoever shall seem good to thee, and to thy brethren, to do with the rest of the silver and the gold, that do after the will of your God. Ezra 7:18

What would that open-ended decree provide? What was the will of their God? What did Ezra do or at least begin?

In the next chapter 8, Ezra catalogues the people who come with him, sends for Levites (priests), rebuilds the temple and altar, and stores the excess gold and silver.

But then surfaces a conflict about mixed marriages. Ezra is beside himself. He does not want the nail already established to be removed, to return to being slaves. He prays to God. During this prayer, Ezra mentions this.

For we were bondmen; yet our God hath not forsaken us in our bondage, but hath extended mercy unto us in the sight of the kings of Persia, to give us a reviving, to set up the house of our God, and to repair the desolations thereof, and to give us a wall in Judah and in Jerusalem. Ezra 9:9

This is a reference to the same decree. What was the will of God? Daniel 9:25 is being fulfilled beginning from Artaxerxes command to Ezra to rebuild Jerusalem, including setting up judges (theocratic kingdom), building the temple, establishing the priesthood, vessels, and sacrifices, and building a wall.

Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. Daniel 9:25

So, this command is the going forth in the year 458 BC as prophesied by Daniel. 483 years or 69 weeks later John baptizes Christ about Tabernacles. Three and one-half years later Christ is crucified at Passover.

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  • Hi SLM, great answer, i think this clarifies my issues...i had not thought to read Ezra 9:9. Clearly that verse outlines that the 457/8 decree is the one. I will make this as the answer.
    – Adam
    Feb 1, 2021 at 3:46
  • @SLM How did you arrive at 458 BC? The decree by Artaxerxes was in 457 BC, not 458 BC. Counting 483 years from 458 BC comes to AD 26 because there is no year 0. I thought historians established Artaxerxes 7th year as 457 BC, and Jesus began his ministry after his baptism in the 15th year of Tiberius (AD 27) (Luke 3:1ff). Doesn't a 458 BC decree not line up with the date Luke 3:1 established for the start of Jesus' public ministry as the Messiah (anointed one). Acts 10 shows Jesus was anointed at his baptism.
    – DDover
    Jan 5 at 1:09
  • @SLM since writing the above I wrote my answer to this question and it's possible it could be the 458 BC date pointing to AD 26.
    – DDover
    Jan 5 at 3:18
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In order to count 69 weeks (483 years) from which ever decree you choose as the correct one, you have to consider there is no year 0 when crossing from BCE to CE (BC to AD).

". . . you still have to adjust for the absence of year 0. You do this by removing 1 from your answer" https://sciencing.com/calculate-years-across-bc-ad-8433373.html

When counting 483 years from the decree given in the 7th year of King Artaxerxes in 457 BC until the coming of the Messiah comes to AD 27. But you also see those who point to that decree as coming in 458 BC which comes to the year AD 26.

Luke 3:1 informs us that Jesus began his ministry as the Messiah in the 15th year of Tiberius after the baptism of John. (See Acts 10:36-38 when Jesus was anointed at his baptism; Messiah means "anointed one"). But we find competing dates for the 15th year of Tiberius:

"On page 194 of his New Testament Commentary volume on Luke, Hendriksen labels as the “traditional view” that which dates the 15th year of Tiberius to AD 26" https://biblearchaeology.org/research/the-daniel-9-24-27-project/4363-what-was-the-fifteenth-year-of-tiberius

Another date:

Thus the reign of Tiberius is dated (not from his sole reign at the death of Augustus) but from the beginning of his joint reign (two years prior to his death in A.D. 12) when Tiberius was given legal equality with Augustus. The 15th year if Tiberius would then correspond to A.D. 27. http://www.onegodonelord.com/27ad

So, whether or not the prophecy given in Daniel 9:25 should be counted from 457 or 458 BC, or culminate in AD 26 or 27, its a remarkable prophecy that points to Jesus being crucified in AD 30 after a roughly 3 year ministry. His ministry beginning somewhere in mid AD 26 would work for a 3 1/2 year ministry.

The Talmud helps confirm Jesus was crucified in AD 30. Recorded in both the Jerusalem and Babylonian Talmuds were curious events that occurred for 40 straight years until the temple's destruction in AD 70.

Beginning in AD 30 the temple doors would not remain shut for 40 straight years.

the Temple doors swung open every night of their own accord. This too occurred for forty years, beginning in 30 CE The leading Jewish authority of that time, Yohanan ben Zakkai, declared that this was a sign of impending doom, that the Temple itself would be destroyed.

There was a seven candle-stick Menorah in the Temple that was supposed to remain lit.

"Every night for 40 years (over 12,500 nights in a row) the main lamp of the Temple lampstand (menorah) went out of its own accord no matter what attempts and precautions the priests took to safeguard against this event!"

The crimson red cloth put on the azazel goat (scape goat) and also put on the temple door once a year did not change color.

Each year the red cloth on the Temple door turned white as if to signify the atonement of another Yom Kippur was acceptable to the Lord. This annual event happened until 30 CE when the cloth then remained crimson each year to the time of the Temple's destruction.

Each year at Yom Kipur a lot was chosen to determined which of two goats would be "for the Lord" and which goat would be the "Azazel" or "scapegoat" to be released in to the wilderness.

"During the two hundred years before 30 CE, when the High Priest picked one of two stones, again this selection was governed by chance, and each year the priest would select a black stone as often as a white stone. But for forty years in a row, beginning in 30 CE, the High Priest always picked the black stone! The odds against this happening are astronomical (2 to the 40th power). In other words, the chances of this occurring are 1 in approximately 5,479,548,800 or about 5.5 billion to one! By comparison, your chances of winning your local state or municipal-run cash Lottery is would be much more favorable."

http://www.3dbibleproject.com/en/temple/details/evidence.htm

So, what event happened in AD 30 to effect temple observance. We read in Matthew 27 that immediately after Christ died on the cross the great veil that separated the Holly of Hollies was rent in two from top to bottom. Jesus is the final sacrifice. The temple sacrifices that were only a shadow of Jesus' perfect sacrifice were now supplanted by Jesus' sacrifice. In Col. 2:14 Paul informs us Jesus nailed those Mosaic ordinances to his cross, taking them out of the way.

So, I believe the Jewish Talmud points to the crucifixion of Christ in AD 30, and no other decree works for that date except the one given in the 7th year or King Artaxerxes (Ezra 7).

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  • 1
    Interesting quotes from the Talmuds re events after crucifixion in 30ad. It seems all of the evidence points to that year.
    – SLM
    Jan 5 at 20:33
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The 490 years begin with “a decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem” (Dan 9:25). A number of historical decrees with different dates have been suggested by scholars.

RESTORE

The right decree will both “restore” and “rebuild” Jerusalem. The word translated as “restore” (shûb) does not mean the same as "rebuild." To rebuild means to physically reconstruct. Shûb means to return ownership of a city to the previous owner (e.g., I Kings 20:34).

In Daniel 9:25, it means more than merely allowing the Jews to live in the city. Since Jerusalem was the judicial capital of the nation, to restore the city means to return it to the Jews to serve as their capital from where they would govern themselves according to their own laws.

JEREMIAH'S PROPHECY

Critical scholars believe that Daniel 9 describes the persecution of the Jews by the Greek king Antiochus IV; around 165 BC. To fit 490 years between the decree and the time of Antiochus, they select the earliest possible decree. They propose that the decree was a prophecy by Jeremiah that God would bring Israel back from exile. But even if we take the earliest possible such ‘decree’, we still only have 440 years between the ‘decree’ and Antiochus; not the 490 years required by the prophecy.

CYRUS

In 538/7 BC, Cyrus issued a decree in which he announced: “The God of heaven ... has appointed me to build a temple for him at Jerusalem in Judah” (Ezra 1:2-4). This decree allowed the Jews to return to Judea and rebuild the temple. By implication, it also allowed them to rebuild Jerusalem. But that decree did not "restore" Jerusalem, for it did not allow the Jews to govern themselves. They were still ruled directly by Persian laws.

DARIUS I

In response to Cyrus' edict, the Jews slowly began to return to their homeland but they did not rebuild the temple. When Zerubbabel and Joshua began to rebuild the temple 17 years after Cyrus’ decree, they experienced resistance (Ezra 5) from Israel's old enemies—the Samaritans, who complained to the authorities. (This confirms that the city was still under Persian jurisdiction and has not yet been ”restored” to the Jews.) In response, Darius affirmed Cyrus’ decree by means of an additional edict (ca. 520 BC) (Ezra 6:3-12). Darius’ decree mentions only the restoration of the temple and simply confirmed and expedited Cyrus' order. Therefore, it still did not “restore” Jerusalem.

ARTAXERXES I

Artaxerxes issued two decrees:

  • The first is recorded in Ezra 7:12-26. This was in the seventh year of his reign (Ezra 7:7), namely in 458/7 BC.
  • In 445/4 BC (Neh 2:1), Nehemiah, cupbearer to Artaxerxes I, received a report that “the wall of Jerusalem is broken down, and its gates are destroyed by fire” (Neh 1:3; cf. 2:3). He then requested and obtained permission from Artaxerxes to go to Jerusalem and rebuild the city (Neh 2:5).

One of these must be the decree identified in Daniel 9:24. Dispensationalism prefers the second decree but, for the following reasons, Artaxerxes' first decree in 458/7 should be accepted as the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem:

RESTORE

Artaxerxes’ first decree (458/7) for the first time “restored” the city to the Israelites for it made the Mosaic law part of the Persian law and granted authority to the Jews to govern themselves on the basis of the law of God (Ezra 7:26). Artaxerxes’ second decree did not “restore” the city because (1) his first decree already did that, (2) the decree said nothing about the right of Jews to rule themselves, and (3) it only dealt with the physical construction of the walls of the city.

FITS THE TIME OF CHRIST

Daniel 9:25 states:

“from the issuing of a decree … until Messiah the Prince there will be seven weeks and sixty-two weeks.“

In other words, the Messiah (Jesus Christ) will appear 483 years (7x7+62x7=483) after the decree.

Artaxerxes’ first decree fits the time of Christ. Jesus’ public ministry began when He was anointed by the Holy Spirit at His baptism (John 1:31; Acts 10:37, 38). This was in the fifteenth year of the Roman emperor Tiberius (Luke 3:1, 5, 21), which was the year AD 26/27; exactly 483 years after the decree in 458/7 (457 + 27 - 1 = 483). (One year is deducted because there was no year nil. From 1 BC to 1 AD was one year, not two.)

The decree of 445/4 BC does not fit the time of Christ. If we add 483 years to 445/4 BC, we come to about seven years after Jesus died. To make the 445/4 decree fit the time of Christ, Dispensationalism interprets the 483 years as ‘prophetic years’ of 360 literal days each. This reduces the 483 years by about 7 years. However, as discussed, the "seventy weeks" (Dan 9:24) are based on Israel’s seven-year cycle in which every seventh is a Sabbath year. This means that the 70 weeks are 490 literal years; not 'prophetic years'.

Furthermore, interpreting the 483 years as “prophetic years” brings us to Jesus’ triumphal entry into Jerusalem, but that was only a few days before His death. In other words, that was the END of His ministry. In contrast, the implication of Daniel 9:25 is that the Messiah’s ministry will BEGIN at the end of the first 483 years. Jesus’ ministry began about three years earlier when He was "anointed" at His baptism.

REBUILT JERUSALEM

Dispensationalism argues that the decree of Artaxerxes I in 457 BC was not the right decree because it did not specifically authorize the rebuilding of Jerusalem. Dispensationalism claims that Artaxerxes' second decree was the first to authorize the rebuilding of Jerusalem. But that is not true:

(a) The previous decrees by Cyrus, Darius I, and Artaxerxes I, by allowing the Jews to return to Judah, to rebuild the temple, and to govern themselves, implicitly allowed the Jews to rebuild their cities.

(b) As shown in the detailed article, much evidence exists that the construction of the walls began before Nehemiah arrived.

In summary, Artaxerxes' first decree fits the description in Daniel 9:25 better than his second because it:

(a) Fits the time of Christ; (b) "Restored" Jerusalem as judicial capital to the Jews, and: (c) Implicitly authorized the Jews to "rebuild" the city.

This is a summary. For the full article, see here.

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Here is an interesting take from Stephen E. Jones which I took from this website. The timing is based upon the "sacrifice and oblation" ceasing (from God's perspective) when Jesus presented Himself for baptism in the middle of the 70th week and then being cut off on the cross at the end of that week.

This view necessitates that the "he" of Daniel 9:27 refers to Messiah and not the prince who is to come. See this BH question: https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/questions/27992/what-is-the-antecedent-of-he-in-daniel-927

The plain fact of history is that Daniel’s 70 weeks (490 years) began in 458 B.C. with the decree of Artaxerxes I, and it ended 490 years later in 33 A.D. with the crucifixion of Jesus. In other words, the crucifixion occurred at the end of the 70 weeks, not in the middle of the final “week,” as I had been taught. So let us take a closer look at Daniel 9:24-27 now in the light of the history already presented.

24 Seventy weeks [i.e., 70 rest year cycles, or 490 years] are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most holy. 25 Know therefore and understand that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks [i.e., 7 rest year cycles, or 49 years] and threescore and two weeks [62 x 7 = 434 years]… 26 And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off. . . 27 And He shall confirm the covenant with many for one week; and in the midst of the week He shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease. . .

It is not our intention to do a complete study on this subject, as that would take an entire book in itself. The question we must resolve here is the meaning of verses 26 and 27. The Messiah was to be “cut off” sometime after the 62-week period. Daniel’s three time periods are as follows:

(1) Seven Weeks 458 B.C. - 409 B.C.

(2) Sixty-Two Weeks 409 B.C. - 26 A.D.

(3) One Week 26 A.D. - 33 A.D.

Daniel’s prophecy tells us that “the sacrifice and the oblation” would cease in the midst of the final week of years (26-33 A.D.). This turns out to be the fall of 29 A.D., specifically, the Day of Atonement of that year, when Jesus presented Himself to John for baptism.

We usually assume that the crucifixion ended the Old Testament sacrificial system, and most certainly, it did mark the full end of sacrifice insofar as the Christian is concerned. The priests continued sacrificing in the Temple for another 40 years, until the Temple was destroyed by the Romans. Thus, it is obvious that Daniel’s prophecy spoke only from God’s perspective about the efficacy of those sacrifices and oblations. No sacrifice after Jesus’ presentations had any relevance to the sin question. The midst of Daniel’s 70th week marks the time of Jesus’ baptism, when He presented Himself as the true Goat. Jesus later presented Himself as the true Lamb at Passover of 33 A.D., marking the end of Daniel’s 70 weeks.

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  • Your author is wrong about crucifixion date...it IS in the middle of the week...3.5years after Jesus jesus started his ministry. The text your author quotes even says exactly that. Jesus presented himself for baptism in A.D 27. The proof for his death in the middle of the week as fulfilment of Daniels prophecy, is the crucifixion itself.
    – Adam
    Jan 31, 2021 at 14:26
  • .remember what Jesus said as he died on the Cross..."it is finished". He died, there was a great earthquake, and the temple curtain was torn in two. This is exactly what those events mean...the end of the sacrificial system (ie no need for sacrifices anymore,) Jesus had now become the sacrifice, he paid the price for all sins (which was what sacrificing was all about in the first place). Sacrificing wasnt just some arbitrary Jewish custom, it meant something. Remember Genesis and the fall of man. Why did Cain kill Able...God rejected Cain's sacrificial offering.
    – Adam
    Jan 31, 2021 at 14:26
  • Daniels end of 70 weeks was based on stoning of Stephen, the conversion of Saul, and the gospel going to the gentiles
    – Adam
    Jan 31, 2021 at 14:33
  • @Adam do you have research for the end of Daniel's 70 weeks corresponding to stoning of Stephen, converting of Saul, and spreading of gospel to gentiles. (I would also add it was the rejecting of the gospel by Hellenistic Jews in Alexandria area.) IOW, I have come to the same conclusion based on my own research. See my answer.
    – SLM
    Jan 31, 2021 at 16:16
  • 1
    here are some references i got from a quick google search regarding the stoning of Stephen around A.D 33 and its relationship to the 70 weeks prophecy in Daniel 9 revelationbyjesuschrist.com/stoning-of-stephen and also its in Wikipedia too... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Stephen. it fits in nicely with the second half of Daniel 9:26 (ie the last half of that prophetic week relating to the messiahs ministry)
    – Adam
    Feb 1, 2021 at 7:54
0

There are quite a number of statements in the OPs question which I think are not correct. It gives the date of the decree of Cyrus to 600 BC. This is one of the supposed dates of Cyrus the First, whereas the decree of Ezra 1:1 was that of Cyrus II better known as Cyrus the Great. Cyrus II ruled Persia from 559 BC. He conquered the Babylonian Empire, which included Judea, when his armies entered the city of Babylon on the night of Oct 12th 539 BC. 539 BC is when he began to be king as far as the Jews were concerned and it is the year from which the decree is derived. (In fact 13th October 539 to (the end of the day before) New Year's Day in the spring of 538 was "the year of his becoming King" and New Year's Day 538 BC was the beginning his "first year".)

The decree starting the 70 weeks is that of Artaxerxes I which began to be obeyed 1st Nisan 458 BC (Ezra 7:9).

2
  • Hi Andrew, thanks for your correction. I have edited the original question fixing the date error for King Cyrus, corrected the mistake concerning Ezra, and i have also added some missing information about King Darius.
    – Adam
    Jan 30, 2021 at 21:01
  • @Adam - there are still errors in your question's introduction, especially you say Moving forward in history...we know in Ezra 6, after the death of Artaxerxes Ezra 6 is not after the death of Artaxerxes. Also, you say "in the first year of Artaxerxes" - I think there is no evidence it was his 1st year. Also you say 457 BC... it was obeyed in 458 bc by Ezra. (there is no year zero [i.e. the day after 31st Dec 1 BC is 1st Jan AD 1], so it had to be 458, and 458 fits perfectly with the accepted dates of his reign). Once it looks good I can delete my comments. Every blessing. Feb 11, 2021 at 10:55

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