The following recent books are very popular and explore the topic. I have read the first two and heard some sermons from the third.
The Attributes of God by A. W. Tozer
Knowing God J.I Packer
The Attributes of God by A.W. Pink
Tozer's sermons are easily found, for example here.
Common ideas or 'attributes of God, go as far back as bible commentary, and many different sorts of commentators surprisingly agree on most of them.
The first key concept of God is that he is infinite and has no boundaries. The infinitude of God is central to the name God told Moses to use:
God said to Moses, “ I am who I am. This is what you are to say to the Israelites: ‘ I am has sent me to you. ’"
'I AM' implies infinity. God always was. This means therefore, whatever God is He is so without any limit, having no beginning. This leads to the second primary concept, he is ineffable and incomprehensible. This means we can never fully explain Him as the finite can't comprehend the infinite.
Although there are few books fully dedicated to the subject, all Bible commentators recognize these attributes when encountering them in a particular bible verse. Attributes, based on what the Bible say’s about God are always explained from an ' I AM' perspective. For example, the Bible say’s God is wise, therefore, He is infinitely wise.
One attribute always leads to another. If He is infinitely wise then He must be infinite knowing. Otherwise his wisdom would have a limit or boundary. He could be fooled over things He did not anticipate.
Powerful - this often implies all powerful, that is all power is derived from Him. He is therefore the sustainer, that is all things are held together by Him. This includes all molecules an even the Devil himself.
He is before all things, and in him all things hold together.
Omnipresent - that is He is everywhere but the universe cannot contain Him.
Where can I go from your Spirit?
Where can I flee from your presence?
8 If I go up to the heavens, you are there;
if I make my bed in the depths, you are there.
Omniscient - that is all knowing, past and future.
Nothing in all creation is hidden from God’s sight. Everything is uncovered and laid bare before the eyes of him to whom we must give account.
All wise - He knows the most perfect means for achieving the most perfect ends, using the most prefect ways. He knows the end from the beginning.
33 Oh, the depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God!
How unsearchable his judgments,
and his paths beyond tracing out!
Self Sufficient - that he needs nothing or anyone in any sense. Kind of implied by the name 'I Am' or possibly Psalm 50:10-12 might be a good reference.
Transcendent - that is His excellence, value and glory rises infinitely beyond anything. This is self evident everywhere in the Bible.
Good - that is he desires the utmost good of all creatures (there is controversy among theologians on what this means because Calvin in one sense restricted goodness, love and grace to the elect). I think that was a critical error on his part, though on most subjects I usually agree with him.
Merciful and Full of Grace (this is the most controversial) I take mercy to be preventing judgment for the purposes of His grace. Also implies pity and understanding of our weakness without grace. Grace, that He is infinitely willing to provide His endless riches at Christ's expense.
For the Lord your God is a merciful God; he will not abandon or destroy you or forget the covenant with your ancestors, which he confirmed to them by oath.
for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, 24 and all are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus.
Holy - that is perfectly without sin. I take this actually to men 100% loving, without any hate whatsoever. (Most theologians would prefer other wording, stinking to just pure whatever else they think pure might be) Example: Leviticus 19:2
Just - that is never showing any partiality or favoritism but able to perfectly discern what is fair. Example: Deuteronomy 32:4
Other attributes can be added to the list, almost whatever is good in a person, God is so perfectly. Virtually every page of the Bible assumes one or more of these attributes.
The Bible argues that all mankind can understand some of God's attributes like His eternal power:
For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities—his eternal power and divine nature—have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that people are without excuse.
Some attributes such as his love and grace seem only perceived by faith.
Other attributes may be manifest specifically by the incarnation, in the God-Man. For example God's empathy is difficult to perceive in the The bible, except when reading the gospels ad witnessing how much empathy Jesus had for those that were suffering.
Some like Tozer argue that no attribute can be greater than another as they are all infinite. Others disagree noting that love is greater than patience and kindness, since they are just subsets of love. Therefore, 1 John 4:8, 'God is love.' really implies the 'essential attribute'. If it wasn't how do we explain that when we try to be like Him, we are to put love on top?