Before concluding with the answer, it's important to clear up a misconception in the question - that Jesus is God was taught in the temple by the apostles. (certainly this particular verse does not suggest this)
Does Jesus being the son of God make him God?
Being called the son of God was made clear from his conception and birth.
Luke 1:35 And the angel answered her, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore, the child to be born will be called holy—the Son of God.
Confirmed by Jesus’ disciples
Matthew 16:16 Simon Peter replied, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.”
John 20:31 But these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.
Mark 1:1 The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.
Mark 3:11 And whenever the unclean spirits saw him, they fell down before him and cried out, “You are the Son of God.”
Luke 4:41 And demons also came out of many, crying, “You are the Son of God!”
Made clear by the Father.
Matthew 3:17 And behold, a voice from heaven said, “This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased.”
And by Jesus’ own words.
John 17:1 When Jesus had spoken these words, he lifted up his eyes to heaven, and said, “Father, the hour has come; glorify your Son that the Son may glorify you.
John 11:4 But when Jesus heard it he said, “This illness does not lead to death. It is for the glory of God, so that the Son of God may be glorified through it.”
There are many references to other sons of God who are not sinless and holy as Jesus was, they are also men as Jesus certainly was. So, having the title, ‘son of God’, does not make one God.
Matthew 5:9 “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God.
Romans 8:14 For all who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God.
Luke 3:38 The son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God.
Even angels – and they are not God either – even though many are without sin.
Job 38:7 When the morning stars sang together and all the sons of God shouted for joy?
Job 1:6 Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them.
SO, being a ‘son of God’ does not make one God. How else might we determine if Jesus is God or not? (as the Op has surmised)
There are many other clear passages providing food for thought and careful consideration.
Jesus has a God – while on earth as a man, and while raised, ascended and exalted, as a man.
2 Cor 1:3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Also 1 Pet 1:3 ad many others.
Heb 1:9 You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, Your God, has anointed You (Jesus) above Your companions with the oil of joy.
Acts 2:36 Therefore let all Israel know with certainty that God has made this Jesus, whom you crucified, both Lord and Christ!”
Rev 3:12 The one who overcomes, I (Jesus) will make him a pillar in the temple of my God, and he will not go out from it anymore; and I will write on him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from my God, and my new name.
John 17:3 Now this is eternal life, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom You have sent.
John 20:17 “Do not cling to Me,” Jesus said, “for I have not yet ascended to the Father. But go and tell My brothers, ‘I am ascending to My Father and your Father, to My God and your God.’ ” (don’t be misled by the textual additions of ‘returning’ or ‘going back’ in the passages that speak of Jesus going to the Father after his resurrection – there is no such concept in the Greek. Many translators have added the extra words to these verses, John 16:5,28, 13:1,3, 20:17, 14:28)
1 Tim 2:5 For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus.
Heb 1:2 But in these last days He has spoken to us by His Son, whom He (God) appointed heir of all things.
John 5:26 ‘The Father gave the son to have life in himself’.
Gal 4:4 ‘God sent His son, born of a woman’.
John 5:19, ‘the son can do nothing by himself…’, ‘my words are not my own but the Father’s’, John 14:24
Clearly we see a striking demarcation between God – the creator of all, and the son called Jesus who God made Lord, Christ, heir, who gave life (twice), all the words and works are not from Jesus, but from God through Jesus.
If we are to maintain the presumption that Jesus is God, we must ignore all the evidence to the contrary – of which I have provided a small sample.
We are also faced with the fact that Jesus never said he was God, nor his disciples or apostles nor any prophecy.
No, they would not have been stoned for teaching Jesus is God. No one was teaching such a thing as this concept was introduced decades after Jesus ministry, and then it was centuries after that before the final draft of a trinity which formally mandated that Jesus is God the Son – not by divine revelation, but by the power of political forces using their own authority for such matters to misdirect the early church. from the biblical, gospel message they began with.
As was very nicely described by Anne, the Spiritual power evident in the early church had an influence much greater than men on their own. The Jews were being converted from their OT model into the NT model based not on laws (of which there were many!) but on a new model of faith and grace, forgiveness and salvation – leading to a resurrection and eternal life.
It would have been an exciting time as some were converted and clearly others were not – perhaps dividing friends and family – all were part of the temple culture, which was now being dramatically transformed from within! It wouldn't be long before persecution set in and the church faithful were severely tested.
It must be recognised that genuine church growth did not happen because people decided to believe - but rather because God enabled a belief through His spirit in their lives. The same is true today. One cannot discover God unless God first makes Himself known - even in a manner that we are initially oblivious to. This was well expressed in Jesus discourse with Peter, 'flesh and blood did not reveal this to you...' Matt 16:17