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If Simon (Simeon, שִׁמְעוֹן) was given "the keys of the kingdom of heaven" [Matthew 16:19] - then rebuked as "Satan" (Satan, שָּׂטָ֗ן) in Matthew 16:23 in fulfillment of Zechariah 3:1-2 - and could later become disowned in Heaven [Matthew 10:33] by disowning Jesus (Yeshua, ישׁוּעָ) during the Messiah's arrest [Matthew 26:69-74] - does that mean Yeshua took back "the keys of the kingdom of heaven" from Satan or Simon?

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    This is sheer supposition to suggest that Peter was 'disowned' in heaven and was divested of the keys. No scripture supports this opinion, nor did you quote any, I notice. Peter was given the opportunity (three times) to confess his love to the Lord. And three times he did so and was not rebuked. Nor does the person of Satan enter the picture at all. Jesus called Peter an 'adversary', because, in that moment, he behaved like one. – Nigel J Aug 6 at 18:19
  • Peter's confession was not documented in [Matthew]. The confession of Peter and commission to feed Yeshua's sheep was written later in [John] - which has questionable inserts like [John 6:4] relating to actual events of Yeshua's ministry causing my studies to focus on the Synoptic Gospels. – Visual Hermeneutics Aug 6 at 18:35
  • So, if I have understood you correctly, you are excluding Peter from heaven because you have already excluded John from scripture. – Nigel J Aug 6 at 18:38
  • This question relates to [Matthew]. – Visual Hermeneutics Aug 6 at 18:54
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First of all, St. Peter repented or turned back from his denial, according to the prophecy of Christ:

Luke 22:32 (DRB[]) And the Lord said: Simon, Simon, behold Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you [all] as wheat: 32 But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and thou, being once converted, confirm thy brethren. 33 Who said to him: Lord, I am ready to go with thee, both into prison, and to death. 34 And he said: I say to thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day, till thou thrice deniest that thou knowest me.

So Christ commanded Peter to confirm the other apostles after his denial - his leadership was not stripped from him.

This is also recorded in John's Gospel:

John 21:15-19 (DRB) When therefore they had dined, Jesus saith to Simon Peter: Simon son of John, lovest thou me more than these? He saith to him: Yea, Lord, thou knowest that I love thee. He saith to him: Feed my lambs. 16 He saith to him again: Simon, son of John, lovest thou me? He saith to him: Yea, Lord, thou knowest that I love thee. He saith to him: Feed my lambs. 17 He said to him the third time: Simon, son of John, lovest thou me? Peter was grieved, because he had said to him the third time: Lovest thou me? And he said to him: Lord, thou knowest all things: thou knowest that I love thee. He said to him: Feed my sheep. 18 Amen, amen I say to thee, when thou wast younger, thou didst gird thyself, and didst walk where thou wouldst. But when thou shalt be old, thou shalt stretch forth thy hands, and another shall gird thee, and lead thee whither thou wouldst not. 19 And this he said, signifying by what death he should glorify God. And when he had said this, he saith to him: Follow me.

(According to tradition, Peter was crucified - upside down.)

This is clearly a reconfirmation in his role after his denial of Christ: 'you denied me thrice, so now reaffirm your commitment to me thrice.'

Zechariah 3 doesn't mention Christ handing the keys of the kingdom of heaven (which in the context of the New Testament, refers to the Christian Kingdom - the church, not heaven only) to Satan. According to the text itself, it is an type of what is to come with the Messiah - Jesus redeems souls from the hands of Satan: "Behold I have taken away thy iniquity ... Is not this a brand plucked out of the fire? ... Hear, O Joshua thou high priest, thou and thy friends that dwell before thee, for they are portending men: for behold I bring my servant the Branch [Messiah]."

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  • It is interesting that the later gospel account in [Luke 22:32] is an added prayer to the earlier prophecy in [Matthew 26:34] in hopes that Simon would find faith in Yeshua. - Yet at the end of [Luke] we only read about Simon's reluctance to believe Miriam's testimony about Yeshua's resurrection in [Luke 24:12] "and he went away, wondering to himself what had happened." - nothing in [Luke] alludes to Simon getting the 'keys' back. - Yeshua kept the keys and ascended to Heaven to receive His Kingship & High Priesthood of Heaven [24:51]. – Visual Hermeneutics Aug 6 at 20:34
  • It's a fallacy to claim that anything is 'added' in a Gospel, when they are distinct accounts of the same thing, and 'omission' is therefore the only adequate term. What's even worse is pitting Luke against Luke, as if it's not your inability to reconcile that is at issue, but instead Luke. If you pit one against the other, you make yourself the lord of Scripture, above Scripture. But to your main point: it remains to be proven that denial of Christ results in being punished by taking away the keys, as if leadership was based on moral integrity, and not God's say-so. God doesn't make mistakes. – Sola Gratia Aug 7 at 18:40
  • God does not makes mistakes. However - scribes have made honest mistakes in the Gospel accounts. *1.) [Matthew 2:15] - Attempts to reassign a verse about Yisrael [Hoshea 11:1] as a prophecy about Yeshua. * 2.) [Matthew 27:9-10] - associates a verse from [Zechariah 11:12-13] with Jeremiah. * 3.) [John 6:4] states a random Passover took place that Yeshua avoided to teach 5,000 disciples, adding to the narrative from [Matthew 14]. – Visual Hermeneutics Aug 7 at 19:26
  • Not so. The New Testament authors viewed Scripture as alive, not a bare account of historical events. Nor did they limit God's prophecy to foretellings of future events. In fact, I would argue the chief way that God prophesied Jesus was through types and shadows, which, taken together, are irrefutable proof that God foresaw and was preparing for Christ. "Out of Egypt I have called my son" is fulfilled in Christ - that's not saying it is a prediction. It does fulfil that better than Israel, who is not literally God's Son, since the Son is literally the Son of God. – Sola Gratia Aug 7 at 19:29
  • שַׁבָּת שָׁלוֹם – Visual Hermeneutics Aug 7 at 19:48
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Lets view this in order.

Matthew 16:15-19 Jesus ask the disciples, who think that I am? and then Peter said Christ, the Son of the living God. Upon this conffession Jesus blessed him and gave keys of the kingdom of heaven.

Matthew 16:22-23 Then Jesus announces how the Son of Man should suffer from the elders and chiefs, Peter then criticize Jesus saying that He should not do that. Jesus responds: stay away Satan (adversary), because Peter only saw the earthly and only saw what is of this world. Peter's scolding does not end in verse 23, but continues until verse 26

Matthew 26:30-35 Peter having an excessive confidence in himself contradicts Jesus when he tells the disciples everyone will leave when they come for me. So Jesus tells him that you don't have the strength to do that, so you will deny me, not once but three times. Even there Peter again contradicts Jesus (God incarnate)

Matthew 26:69-75 Here is exactly what Jesus had announced, that Peter would not have the strength to even affirm that he was with Jesus, worse still that he was his disciple.

Matthew 27:3-5 Judas hanged himself

Matthew 28:16-20 The eleven disciples meet Jesus in Galilee and HE sends them to evangelize and teach all the nations in His name.

Through the gospel we can see that Peter did not understand the nature of the battle that was being fought.

In Galilee the eleven met Jesus, Judas was dead at that time, so the eleven are including Peter. Peter was not excluded or thrown out, but in the end he was restaured and entrusted to the great commission.

If you add what we have seen in Matthew to the other gospels, you can see how Jesus prays that Peter's faith will be maintained (Luke 22: 31-32). Peter regrets having denied Christ (Mark 14:72; Luke 22:62). And how Peter is restored (John 21-15: 17)

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  • The account of [John] does not mention restoring the 'keys to the kingdom of Heaven' to Simon, instead Simon is given a different reward. - In [John 21:15-19] Yeshua forgives Simon but indicates the kind of death by which Simon would glorify God. - Simon was not given back the 'keys' for repenting His multiple denials of God, instead Yeshua rewards Simon a glorious death. – Visual Hermeneutics Aug 6 at 20:53

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