If Simon (Simeon, שִׁמְעוֹן) was given "the keys of the kingdom of heaven" [Matthew 16:19] - then rebuked as "Satan" (Satan, שָּׂטָ֗ן) in Matthew 16:23 in fulfillment of Zechariah 3:1-2 - and could later become disowned in Heaven [Matthew 10:33] by disowning Jesus (Yeshua, ישׁוּעָ) during the Messiah's arrest [Matthew 26:69-74] - does that mean Yeshua took back "the keys of the kingdom of heaven" from Satan or Simon?
First of all, St. Peter repented or turned back from his denial, according to the prophecy of Christ:
Luke 22:32 (DRB) And the Lord said: Simon, Simon, behold Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you [all] as wheat: 32 But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and thou, being once converted, confirm thy brethren. 33 Who said to him: Lord, I am ready to go with thee, both into prison, and to death. 34 And he said: I say to thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day, till thou thrice deniest that thou knowest me.
So Christ commanded Peter to confirm the other apostles after his denial - his leadership was not stripped from him.
This is also recorded in John's Gospel:
John 21:15-19 (DRB) When therefore they had dined, Jesus saith to Simon Peter: Simon son of John, lovest thou me more than these? He saith to him: Yea, Lord, thou knowest that I love thee. He saith to him: Feed my lambs. 16 He saith to him again: Simon, son of John, lovest thou me? He saith to him: Yea, Lord, thou knowest that I love thee. He saith to him: Feed my lambs. 17 He said to him the third time: Simon, son of John, lovest thou me? Peter was grieved, because he had said to him the third time: Lovest thou me? And he said to him: Lord, thou knowest all things: thou knowest that I love thee. He said to him: Feed my sheep. 18 Amen, amen I say to thee, when thou wast younger, thou didst gird thyself, and didst walk where thou wouldst. But when thou shalt be old, thou shalt stretch forth thy hands, and another shall gird thee, and lead thee whither thou wouldst not. 19 And this he said, signifying by what death he should glorify God. And when he had said this, he saith to him: Follow me.
(According to tradition, Peter was crucified - upside down.)
This is clearly a reconfirmation in his role after his denial of Christ: 'you denied me thrice, so now reaffirm your commitment to me thrice.'
Zechariah 3 doesn't mention Christ handing the keys of the kingdom of heaven (which in the context of the New Testament, refers to the Christian Kingdom - the church, not heaven only) to Satan. According to the text itself, it is an type of what is to come with the Messiah - Jesus redeems souls from the hands of Satan: "Behold I have taken away thy iniquity ... Is not this a brand plucked out of the fire? ... Hear, O Joshua thou high priest, thou and thy friends that dwell before thee, for they are portending men: for behold I bring my servant the Branch [Messiah]."
Lets view this in order.
Matthew 16:15-19 Jesus ask the disciples, who think that I am? and then Peter said Christ, the Son of the living God. Upon this conffession Jesus blessed him and gave keys of the kingdom of heaven.
Matthew 16:22-23 Then Jesus announces how the Son of Man should suffer from the elders and chiefs, Peter then criticize Jesus saying that He should not do that. Jesus responds: stay away Satan (adversary), because Peter only saw the earthly and only saw what is of this world. Peter's scolding does not end in verse 23, but continues until verse 26
Matthew 26:30-35 Peter having an excessive confidence in himself contradicts Jesus when he tells the disciples everyone will leave when they come for me. So Jesus tells him that you don't have the strength to do that, so you will deny me, not once but three times. Even there Peter again contradicts Jesus (God incarnate)
Matthew 26:69-75 Here is exactly what Jesus had announced, that Peter would not have the strength to even affirm that he was with Jesus, worse still that he was his disciple.
Matthew 27:3-5 Judas hanged himself
Matthew 28:16-20 The eleven disciples meet Jesus in Galilee and HE sends them to evangelize and teach all the nations in His name.
Through the gospel we can see that Peter did not understand the nature of the battle that was being fought.
In Galilee the eleven met Jesus, Judas was dead at that time, so the eleven are including Peter. Peter was not excluded or thrown out, but in the end he was restaured and entrusted to the great commission.
If you add what we have seen in Matthew to the other gospels, you can see how Jesus prays that Peter's faith will be maintained (Luke 22: 31-32). Peter regrets having denied Christ (Mark 14:72; Luke 22:62). And how Peter is restored (John 21-15: 17)