One problem with finding an answer to this important question is that there are conflicting views as to which Pharaohs ruled when. There is an Egyptologist who says it was NOT Thutmose III who was on the throne at the time of Israel’s oppression, as is commonly thought. He has Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV on the throne when Moses fled Egypt into Sinai. Forty years later, Moses returned to Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Dudimose. HE would be the Pharaoh at the time of the Exodus, according to this Egyptologist David. M. Rohl.
Rohl has written extensively on the evidence in Egyptian artifacts that prove the Habiru (Hebrews) were indeed forced into hard labor in Egypt. He's discovered Joseph's palace at Avaris in the Nile delta, known in the OT as Goshen. Joseph was entombed in a small pyramid in the grounds of his palace, with a chapel containing his colossal cult statue. This depicts an Asiatically pale fellow with reddish hair adorned with the multicoloured coat of a middle Bronze Age chieftain. Then the Hebrews became despised and pressed into hard labor. Bronze Age documents have yielded up pharaonic slave lists with Hebrew names, and the tinpot grave goods of an underclass were found at Avaris.
Independent dating of Rohl's chronology vindicates his dating of Joseph's pharaoh, Amenemhat III, at 1678 BC (give or take 4 years). The result was 37 out of 39 lunar month-length matches, whereas orthodox chronology scored no better than 21 matches. Astronomer Dr David Lappin, of Glasgow university, concluded,
“Most of the astronomical data... simply do not fit with the orthodox
chronology, while the support it gives to Rohl's new chronology is
nothing less than startling.”
Rohl also found water heights chipped into cliff faces just south of the Nile's second cataract that account for four massive Nile floods that would have made seed-sowing impossible for several years and famine inevitable. Joseph's God told him of this coming famine, giving him the interpretation to pharaoh's dream. Joseph was put in charge of preparing for the famine which also lead to Joseph's family moving to Egypt – the start of the Habiru population in Egypt.
So, although the Egyptian records do not relate the historic event of the 10 plagues and the exodus of the despised Habiru, Egyptian records do, indeed, point to the truth of the biblical account. The proud Egyptians would never concede, in writing, that their gods were humiliated by the 10 plagues, and that their forced-labour work-force left with great wealth! Granted, no record of the Habiru exodus has yet been found; it might never have been recorded, especially as that pharaoh's army was drowned at God's hand, but it also might have been recorded and is awaiting discovery. It is always a mistake to argue from silence against a historic event. Little more than 1% of ancient Egyptian artifacts have been uncovered.
Finally – plagues. Rohl has another hefty book where he deals with all of that. There have been Egyptian plague pits found, full of bodies, but the ten plagues were not akin to The Black Death or suchlike. Rohl deals with them all. For the tenth plague he proposes that things like earthquakes and tidal waves could have preceded the killing of the firstborn. Let me just quote this bit:
“The Egyptians had resorted to truly barbaric practices in a vain
attempt to save themselves from the anger of a god they did not know
or understand. Lying in the streets were the bodies of the first-born
males – their throats cut. For centuries it had been the custom
amongst many in the Asiatic world to deliver the sacrifice of
first-born sons, at a time of crisis, in order to placate angry gods.
The Egyptians of earlier times had NOT been party to this practice
but, during the 13th Dynasty, much of the native population in the
Nile Valley had interbred with the incoming Asiatics and had
inevitably adopted many of their traditions. This influx of Canaanite
and Mesopotamian ideas had penetrated into the highest echelons of
society – even into the royal household itself. As we have seen, many
of the pharaohs of this period bore Asiatic names and were therefore
of second-generation Canaanite stock. Dudimose was no exception.
Filled with terror and superstition, Pharaoh had taken the lead in the
barbarism and sacrificed his own first-born in the temple of Seth
(Canaanite Baal)... His eldest was a fully grown man in his late
twenties, the heir to the throne of Egypt.”
Then Rohl quotes from a papyrus known as The Admonitions of an Egyptian Sage, recording distress at disasters; storms, blood and death everywhere. “The river is blood… Children of the nobility are dashed against walls” then details the poor of the land having great wealth of gold and jewellery. Read both books to see the mass of evidence for the biblical record. Please also note that Rohl is not a Christian. I am not in a position to say whether Rohl's two books are correct, but I do refer to them as one source that claims there is, indeed, evidence to support the biblical account.
Sunday Times magazine 13 October 2002 article “How Myth Became History”.
Rohl, David M, A Test of Time (Century, 1995) used for Channel 4 series Pharaohs and Kings – a biblical quest
Rohl, David M, The Lost Testament (Century 2002)