First let's put the 2 Qur'an passages in context, using a relatively modern English translation:
Surah Al-Ma'idah 5:78-86:
(5:78) Those of the Children of Israel who took to unbelief have been cursed by the tongue of David and Jesus, son of Mary, for they rebelled and exceeded the bounds of right. (5:79) They did not forbid each other from committing the abominable deeds they committed. Indeed what they did was evil. (5:80) And now you can see many of them taking the unbelievers (instead of the believers) for their allies. Indeed they have prepared evil for themselves. Allah is angry with them, and they shall abide in chastisement. (5:81) For had they truly believed in Allah and the Messenger and what was sent down to him, they would not have taken unbelievers (instead of believers) for their allies. But many of them have rebelled against Allah altogether. (5:82) Of all men you will find the Jews and those who associate others with Allah in His divinity to be the most hostile to those who believe; and you will surely find that of all people they who say: 'We are Christians', are closest to feeling affection for those who believe. This is because there are worshipful priests and monks among them, and because they are not arrogant. (5:83) And when they hear what has been revealed to the Messenger you see that their eyes overflow with tears because of the Truth that they recognize and they say: 'Our Lord! We do believe; write us down, therefore, with those who bear witness (to the Truth). (5:84) And why should we not believe in Allah and the Truth which has come down to us when we do fervently desire that our Lord include us among the righteous?' (5:85) So Allah rewarded them for these words with Gardens beneath which rivers flow so that they would abide there for ever. Such is the reward of the people who do good. (5:86) Those who disbelieved and gave the lie to Our signs are rightfully the inmates of the Blazing Flame.
Surah Al-baqarah 2:113-121:
(2:113) The Jews say: “The Christians have no basis for their beliefs,” and the Christians say: “The Jews have no basis for their beliefs.” They say so even though they read the Scripture. The claim of those who have no knowledge (of the Scripture) is similar. Allah will judge between them concerning their differences on the Day of Resurrection. (2:114) Who is more iniquitous than he who bars Allah’s places of worship, that His name be mentioned there, and seeks their destruction? It does not behove such people to enter them, and should they enter, they should enter in fear. There is degradation for them in this world and a mighty chastisement in the Next. (2:115) The East and the West belong to Allah. To whichever direction you turn, you will be turning to Allah. Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing. (2:116) They say: “Allah has taken to Himself a son.” Glory to Him! Nay, whatever is in the heavens and the earth belongs to Him; to Him are all in obeisance. (2:117) He is the Originator of the heavens and the earth; whenever He decrees a matter He (merely) says: “Be”, and it is. (2:118) The ignorant say: “Why does Allah not speak to us? Why does no Sign come to us?” The same was said by people before them. Their hearts are all alike. We have made the Signs clear for people of firm faith. (2:119) (What greater Sign can there be than that) We sent you with the Truth as a bearer of good tidings and a warner! And you will not be answerable about the people of the Blazing Flame! (2:120) Never will the Jews be pleased with you, (O Prophet), nor the Christians until you follow their way. Say: “Surely Allah’s guidance, is the true guidance.” Should you follow their desires disregarding the knowledge which has come to you, you shall have no protector or helper against Allah. (2:121) Those to whom We have given the Scripture, and who recite it as it ought to be recited, they truly believe in it; and those who disbelieve in it, they are the real losers.
Surah Al-Ma'idah 5:82 predicted that the Jews will be more hostile toward the Moslems while the Christians, especially the Christian priests & monks, once they realized the truth they would immediately convert to Islam because they are not arrogant (5:83).
Surah Al-baqarah 2:120 is a warning to Moslems that the Christians and the Jews would never be pleased until a Moslem converts to their faith. Therefore Moslems should not be influenced because Allah wouldn't protect them if they convert.
Your question (with slight editing) and My answer
Are there any passages in the Holy Bible or in holy books other than the Qur'an which describe the real psychological behavior of Jews or Christians or Moslems as were described in the above two verses?
If I understood Surah Al-Ma'idah 5:82 correctly (see the Paraphrase section above), then the most similar passages in the Christian Bible would be when Jesus or His apostles (such as Paul and Peter) brought the Good News (the Gospel) to the Jews. But New Testament recorded how some Jews rejected Jesus (which the New Testament characterized as hardened and arrogant, 5:82) and how God would punish them (5:86). There are also passages similar to 5:78 where Jesus told those who rejected his message that Moses himself (whom the Jews highly honored) would condemn them (5:78). On the other hand, a lot of Jews who are humble accepted Jesus as the True Prophet & True Messiah coming from God, with the attitude similar to 5:83, especially St. Paul, a pious Jew, who turned 180 degrees from persecuting Christians to becoming Christians once his eyes were opened.
Some passages that would be similar to Surah Al-baqarah 2:113-121 include passages quoting Isaiah such as Matt 13:1-23 because even though Jesus produced a lot of signs and miracles, some Jews remained hardened and refused to accept the True Prophet & Messiah Jesus coming from God.
Are there any priests or any Jews who disagree with those 2 verses?
Of course the New Testament does not mention the Moslems because Islam came later. But now that the Qur'an has been revealed, Christians and Jews would still disagree because for Christians God's revelation stopped with Jesus while for Jews God's revelation stopped with Malachi.