In Western Christian worship, there is a part where the faithful say "One is Holy, One is Lord, Jesus Christ, (together) with the Holy Spirit, to the glory of God the Father. Amen."

In Eastern Christianity they say "One is Holy, One is Lord, Jesus Christ, to the glory of God the Father. Amen."

Since the quote is partly scriptural (Phillipians 2:11), I can see where the Eastern version comes from (though this may not be the rigorous explanation of how it came to be in the Liturgy), but I have not yet been able to track down where/when/how/why the phrase 'with the Holy Spirit' was inserted in the Western rite.

Some thoughts/possibilities:

  • It was inserted to make the prayer 'more' Trinitarian. (Counterpoint: Why then would the Eastern Orthodox not include it?)
  • It was inserted as a consequence of the Filioque clause in the Latin creed. I.e. if the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son as well as from the Father, one might want to make mention of that in a sentence extolling Christ. (Counterpoint: Why would the Eastern Orthodox not include it? Well--they reject the filioque clause. In that case, what is the reason for Paul or the early Church Fathers to omit the Holy Ghost in such a sentiment, either in Scripture or in the Liturgy?)

Overall, I must ask: Is the addition of 'with the Holy Spirit' (in the above prayer) primarily of theological or cultural/traditional origin?

A more advanced answer would lay out the history of such an insertion. But I'm also happy with references I can read on my own.

Thank you.

  • 2
    I will add this, as the Great Doxology is another place with this textual difference between east and west: "It will be noticed that the Gloria is a hymn of praise addressed to each Person of the Holy Trinity in turn, although the clause about the Holy Ghost is very short (cum sancto Spiritu) and is evidently an afterthought. It does not occur in the text of the Apostolic Constitutions." (taken from en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/…)
    – Samantha Y
    Mar 25, 2020 at 19:23
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    Welcome Samantha. Thanks for your question. Mar 26, 2020 at 15:07
  • When you refer to "Western Christian worship" do you mean Catholicism (whether eastern or western)? If so, perhaps that tag should be added.
    – Lesley
    Mar 27, 2020 at 7:37
  • To be fair, I suppose I do, but I was not raised Catholic, so I'm guessing a bit. To be honest, I first came across this discrepancy when I was listening to the Mass in B minor by JS Bach. He was Lutheran, but the mass is written in the Catholic style, and that he included 'Cum Sancto Spiritu' (and it's one of the best parts!) indicated (to me) that it was both a Catholic and a Protestant thing.
    – Samantha Y
    Mar 27, 2020 at 11:50


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