According to Catholicism, does faith or trust in God guarantee protection from poverty?
The short answer is no.
If it were that easy to avoid poverty, there would be no poor left in the world.
Monks take vows of poverty. Some lived in very real poverty such as Blessed Charles de Foucauld.
How many martyrs were dispossessed of their property before being tortured and killed.
Last but not least, we have the words of Our Lord in regards to the poor:
You will always have the poor among you, but you will not always have me." - John 12:8
Many of the saints were poor!
Our faith and trust in God can and will always help in dealing with real poverty, for our true hope should always be in Our Lord.
Just as St. Paul was not relieved of his thorn in his side (2 Corinthians 12:7–9), so how can we believe that by being confident in trusting and having faith in God will protect us from poverty and/or a lack of food? It can not.
And lest I should be exalted above measure through the abundance of the revelations, there was given to me a thorn in the flesh, the messenger of Satan to buffet me, lest I should be exalted above measure. 8 For this thing I besought the Lord thrice, that it might depart from me. 9 And he said unto me, My grace is sufficient for thee: for my strength is made perfect in weakness. Most gladly therefore will I rather glory in my infirmities, that the power of Christ may rest upon me. (KJV)
Even the example of the saintly Job as mentioned in Geremia’s answer is not an example maintained for the average individual. Life is very fragile at the best of times.
Our greatest form of poverty is sin itself and not the lack of material possessions or lack of food. Thus we are all poor in some sense. Serious sin will deprive oneself of one’s ultimate good (Beatific Vision) forever if not forgiven before one dies.