Jesus said the first and greatest commandment is to love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind. The second commandment is to love your neighbour as yourself (Matthew 22:37-40). Jesus was making reference to the law in Leviticus chapter 19:9-18 which said (among other things) to share with the poor and with foreigners, and to show compassion and impartiality in our dealings with other people. Jesus also taught that we should do to others as we would have them do to us (Matthew 7:12).
An example of what it means to love your neighbour is found in the parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke 10:25-37). To love ones neighbour is to show mercy and compassion, to give practical help where help is needed and to do so without thought of personal gain or recompense. It’s all about demonstrating the love of God to those whom we meet.
With regard to the examples you give, these are matters of conscience. Nobody is compelled to give money just because someone asks them. Individuals must decide for themselves whether or not to give money. However, in a work situation where a colleague asks for help, to withhold help for fear of not being recognised or of being passed over for promotion would be selfish, don’t you think?
Take the example of Joseph, who was sold into slavery by his brothers, and who languished in prison for a crime he did not commit. After he became the Prime Minister of Egypt he rescued his family from famine. He told his brothers not to be afraid:
You intended to harm me, but God intended it for good to accomplish what is now being done, the saving of many lives. So then, don’t be afraid. I will provide for you and your children (Genesis 50:19-21).
From a Protestant perspective, the biblical principle is clear – help others when you can and do so with pure motives. That is not the same thing as to put others ahead of yourself.
Also, be aware that there is no shame in asking for help. Our first port of call should always be to bring our concerns to God in prayer. We can be confident that if we ask according to God’s will, He will hear us (1 John 5:14-15).
Whenever in doubt, turn to God and seek His wisdom. King Solomon did not ask for long life or wealth or for the death of his enemies. Instead he asked for God to grant him the wisdom and discernment to govern well (1 Kings 3:7-14). If a King can ask for help, so can we!