Many Muslims believe that the Prophet of Islam is the Last prophet of God.
Does this belief of 'last' Prophet exist in Christianity as well? Do any Christians believe that any other prophet will come between Jesus and his second coming?
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You have not scoped this question to any particular Christian denomination, but pretty much all mainstream and even non-mainstream denominations would say that Jesus was not the last prophet.
The Bible contains prophecies that were written by people after Jesus (such as the book of Revelation), and it describes first-century Christian congregations as having prophets. (1 Corinthians 14; Acts 13:1)
Denominations which don't recognize the authority of the Bible still usually rely on private revelation or their own prophet to base their beliefs on.
The idea of the last prophet or the last revelation is not a Christian concept.
Notice what a prophecy is
“knowing this first of all, that no prophecy of Scripture comes from someone's own interpretation. For no prophecy was ever produced by the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.” 2 Peter 1:20-21
Prophecy is from God and a prophet is the mouthpiece that speaks what he or she saw and/or heard. Consider Jeremiah’s definition of what a prophet is
“For who among them has stood in the council of the Lord to see and to hear his word, or who has paid attention to his word and listened?” Jeremiah 23:18
Apostle Paul explains that a believer is to seek the baptism of the Holy Spirit which empowers a person to be witness for Christ (you cannot be a witness if you haven’t seen it first hand yourself) which includes being edified by praying in the spirit but especially to prophecy.
“Pursue love, and earnestly desire the spiritual gifts, especially that you may prophesy.” 1 Corinthians 14:1
There are also those who will claim to have been prophets in Jesus’ Name and where there is a counterfeit there is the genuine.
“On that day many will say to me, 'Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in your name, and cast out demons in your name, and do many mighty works in your name?'” Matthew 7:22
Further we are instructed to investigate all prophecies. This is referring to those contemporary to us.
“Do not despise prophecies,” 1 Thessalonians 5:20 “but test everything; hold fast what is good.” 1 Thessalonians 5:21
The Church has those with different gifts and callings that the work of Christ through the Holy Ghost might be fulfilled on the earth. One of these are prophets
“And God has appointed in the church first apostles, second prophets, third teachers, then miracles, then gifts of healing, helping, administrating, and various kinds of tongues. But earnestly desire the higher gifts. And I will show you a still more excellent way.” 1 Corinthians 12:28, 31 ESV
This is an ongoing ministry until the end of the age when prophecies will finally cease
“And he gave the apostles, the prophets, the evangelists, the shepherds and teachers, to equip the saints for the work of ministry, for building up the body of Christ,” Ephesians 4:11-12
Since we have not reached the end of the age and Christ has not returned prophecies have not ceased but they will
“Love never ends. As for prophecies, they will pass away; as for tongues, they will cease; as for knowledge, it will pass away. For we know in part and we prophesy in part, but when the perfect comes, the partial will pass away.” 1 Corinthians 13:8-10
Notice it says we prophecy, meaning there still are prophets and they obviously lived after the Ascension of Jesus.
Christianity venerates Jesus, who yes was a prophet but He is the only Savior and there will be no other. But prophets there will be until the end of the age.
If you take the book of Revelation in chronological order, Revelation 11 says there's at least two more prophets to come before Jesus makes his direct return in chapter 19
3And I will appoint my two witnesses, and they will prophesy for 1,260 days, clothed in sackcloth.” 4They are “the two olive trees” and the two lampstands, and “they stand before the Lord of the earth.” a 5If anyone tries to harm them, fire comes from their mouths and devours their enemies. This is how anyone who wants to harm them must die. 6They have power to shut up the heavens so that it will not rain during the time they are prophesying; and they have power to turn the waters into blood and to strike the earth with every kind of plague as often as they want.
7Now when they have finished their testimony, the beast that comes up from the Abyss will attack them, and overpower and kill them. 8Their bodies will lie in the public square of the great city—which is figuratively called Sodom and Egypt—where also their Lord was crucified. 9For three and a half days some from every people, tribe, language and nation will gaze on their bodies and refuse them burial. 10The inhabitants of the earth will gloat over them and will celebrate by sending each other gifts, because these two prophets had tormented those who live on the earth.
11But after the three and a half days the breath b of life from God entered them, and they stood on their feet, and terror struck those who saw them. 12Then they heard a loud voice from heaven saying to them, “Come up here.” And they went up to heaven in a cloud, while their enemies looked on.
These two are clearly prophets in the same mold as their Old Testament counterparts. Their powers mirror those of Elijah (shutting the sky) and Moses (turning water to blood).
It appears that many of the answers posted here interpret the word "prophet" in a literal sense, taking it to mean "a person who receives a divine revelation." However, it seems to me that you're using the word "prophet" in the Islamic sense, and interpreting it to mean "a person divinely chosen to be a significant religious leader."
I must clarify that Muslims and Christians do not regard Jesus in the same way. Muslims regard Jesus to be simply one of many prophets, that he is regular person who was divinely chosen to be a significant religious leader. This is not how Christians view Jesus. Christians know that Jesus is far more than this, that Jesus is God Himself taking on human flesh:
- For to us a child is born, to us a son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder, and his name shall be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. (Isaiah 9:6)
- "Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and they shall call his name Immanuel" (which means, God with us). (Matthew 1:23)
- In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (John 1:1)
- And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we have seen his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth. (John 1:14)
- I [Jesus] and the Father are one. (John 10:30)
- Thomas answered him [Jesus], "My Lord and my God!" Jesus said to him, "Have you believed because you have seen me? Blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed." (John 20:28-29)
- To them belong the patriarchs, and from their race, according to the flesh, is the Christ who is God over all, blessed forever. Amen. (Romans 9:5)
- For in him the whole fullness of deity dwells bodily (Colossians 2:9)
- For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus (1 Timothy 2:5)
- Waiting for our blessed hope, the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ (Titus 2:13)
- He is the radiance of the glory of God and the exact imprint of his nature, and he upholds the universe by the word of his power. (Hebrews 1:3)
- But of the Son he says, "Your throne, O God, is forever and ever, the scepter of uprightness is the scepter of your kingdom. (Hebrews 1:8)
- And we know that the Son of God has come and has given us understanding, so that we may know him who is true; and we are in him who is true, in his Son Jesus Christ. He is the true God and eternal life. (1 John 5:20)
Because Jesus is God, He is infinitely greater than any prophet, and his authority is above all:
- And when Jesus finished these sayings, the crowds were astonished at his teaching, for he was teaching them as one who had authority, and not as their scribes. (Matthew 7:28-29)
- And behold, there appeared to them Moses and Elijah, talking with him. And Peter said to Jesus, "Lord, it is good that we are here. If you wish, I will make three tents here, one for you and one for Moses and one for Elijah." He was still speaking when, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them, and a voice from the cloud said, "This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased; listen to him." (Matthew 17:3-5)
- And Jesus came and said to them, "All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. (Matthew 28:18)
- Long ago, at many times and in many ways, God spoke to our fathers by the prophets, but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed the heir of all things, through whom also he created the world. (Hebrews 1:1-2)
- having become as much superior to angels as the name he has inherited is more excellent than theirs. (Hebrews 1:4)
- But as it is, Christ has obtained a ministry that is as much more excellent than the old as the covenant he mediates is better, since it is enacted on better promises. (Hebrews 8:6)
While Christians do recognize the existence of many prophets, they all lead us to Jesus:
- And he said to them, "O foolish ones, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! Was it not necessary that the Christ should suffer these things and enter into his glory?" And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he interpreted to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. (Luke 24:25-27)
- Then he said to them, "These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you, that everything written about me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled." (Luke 24:44)
- You search the Scriptures because you think that in them you have eternal life; and it is they that bear witness about me, yet you refuse to come to me that you may have life. (John 5:39-40)
- For if you believed Moses, you would believe me; for he wrote of me. (John 5:46)
- And how from childhood you have been acquainted with the sacred writings, which are able to make you wise for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus. (2 Timothy 3:15)
Ultimately, our salvation only comes through faith in Jesus and no one else. Unlike any prophet, Jesus came into the world to take away are sins. He was crucified and died, taking the punishment for our sins that we deserve. Not only that, He then rose again to life and lives forevermore, so that all who believe in Him will have eternal life also:
- But to all who did receive him, who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God (John 1:12)
- For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life. (John 3:16)
- Jesus said to him, "I am the way, and the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me. (John 14:6)
- And Peter said to them, "Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. (Acts 2:38)
- And there is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved. (Acts 4:12)
- But God shows his love for us in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us. (Romans 5:8)
- For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. (Romans 6:23)
- Because, if you confess with your mouth that Jesus is Lord and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. (Romans 10:9)
- For "everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved." (Romans 10:13)
- For by grace you have been saved through faith. And this is not your own doing; it is the gift of God, not a result of works, so that no one may boast. For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in them. (Ephesians 2:8-10)
- For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus (1 Timothy 2:5)
- If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. (1 John 1:9)
- And this is the testimony, that God gave us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. (1 John 5:11)
As such, there is no person or prophet who can succeed Jesus. In fact, Jesus warns of false prophets that will appear before His second coming:
- Then if anyone says to you, 'Look, here is the Christ!' or 'There he is!' do not believe it. For false christs and false prophets will arise and perform great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect. See, I have told you beforehand. So, if they say to you, 'Look, he is in the wilderness,' do not go out. If they say, 'Look, he is in the inner rooms,' do not believe it. For as the lightning comes from the east and shines as far as the west, so will be the coming of the Son of Man. (Matthew 24:23-27)
- And Jesus began to say to them, "See that no one leads you astray. Many will come in my name, saying, 'I am he!' and they will lead many astray. (Mark 13:5-6)
- And then if anyone says to you, 'Look, here is the Christ!' or 'Look, there he is!' do not believe it. For false christs and false prophets will arise and perform signs and wonders, to lead astray, if possible, the elect. But be on guard; I have told you all things beforehand. (Mark 13:21-23)
- For the time is coming when people will not endure sound teaching, but having itching ears they will accumulate for themselves teachers to suit their own passions, and will turn away from listening to the truth and wander off into myths. (2 Timothy 4:2-3)
- But false prophets also arose among the people, just as there will be false teachers among you, who will secretly bring in destructive heresies, even denying the Master who bought them, bringing upon themselves swift destruction. (1 Peter 2:1)
- Who is the liar but he who denies that Jesus is the Christ? This is the antichrist, he who denies the Father and the Son. (1 John 2:22)
- Beloved, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God, for many false prophets have gone out into the world. (1 John 4:1)
- And every spirit that does not confess Jesus is not from God. This is the spirit of the antichrist, which you heard was coming and now is in the world already. (1 John 4:3)
- And the beast was captured, and with it the false prophet who in its presence had done the signs by which he deceived those who had received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped its image. These two were thrown alive into the lake of fire that burns with sulfur. (Revelation 19:20)
- And the devil who had deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur where the beast and the false prophet were, and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever. (Revelation 20:10)
Catholicism for one (which is a big one) teaches that:
Jesus fulfills the 3-fold office of Priest, Prophet and King.
Jesus Christ is the one whom the Father anointed with the Holy Spirit and established as priest, prophet, and king. The whole People of God participates in these three offices of Christ and bears the responsibilities for mission and service that flow from them.
John the Baptist (Jesus' wilderness-dwelling cousin) was the last of the Old Testament Prophets.
The four Gospels place great emphasis on the figure of John the Baptist, the prophet who concludes the Old Testament and inaugurates the New, by identifying Jesus of Nazareth as the Messiah, the Anointed One of the Lord
Everything anyone needs for salvation has been revealed already
"The Christian economy, therefore, since it is the new and definitive Covenant, will never pass away; and no new public revelation is to be expected before the glorious manifestation of our Lord Jesus Christ."Yet even if Revelation is already complete, it has not been made completely explicit; it remains for Christian faith gradually to grasp its full significance over the course of the centuries. CCC - 66
Usually on this site, we require questions like these to be scoped and answering in a very specific way with a Catholic answer is not acceptable. However, I think and please correct me if I'm wrong, these are fairly uniform and non-controversial teachings that most of us agree with (even if we don't agree with the authority who defined them) and I only posted Catechism references because it's good to show that someone else is saying these things too.
And the summation of them all is that Jesus is God who came down from Heaven to bring the Good News to all people and He didn't leave anything up to future prophets to reveal so that those that came before that future prophet would have a tougher time attaining salvation.
The events that happen at the end of the world will be marked with Christ's second coming, but not as a different person.
And, if God manifests himself in the interim through miracles and visions and the like, they're not technically necessary for salvation, just helpful - like a pair of glasses or a cool drink of water.
In the past God spoke to our ancestors through the prophets at many times and in various ways, but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, and through whom also he made the universe. The Son is the radiance of God’s glory and the exact representation of his being, sustaining all things by his powerful word. After he had provided purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty in heaven. (Hebrews 1:1-3)
Though this doesn't necessarily rule out there being later prophets, it clear that in Christianity Jesus is the greatest prophet.
Here is the difference. We may have new prophets, but the rule is as it has been throughout history. Prophets may add material, but may not contradict earlier prophets.
When Abraham acted as a prophet (though he was not called that he in some cases behaved like one) he did not contradict Noah or Abel.
When Moses gave the law he did not contradict Noah's law.
When Samuel appointed Saul and later David as king, he fulfilled the prophesy within the law.
When Elijah contended with Ahab with works of power, he told the future and commanded the rain, but gave no new law.
When Isaiah and Jeremiah foretold the sack of Jerusalem and the coming of salvation they told of the fulfilling of the law and not of its overthrow.
When Daniel prophesied before Nebuchadnezzar, Belchazzar, and Darius he upheld the law and demonstrated righteousness.
When Malachi foretold the coming of Elijah it was new, but it contradicted not the old.
When John the Baptist give the sign of baptism for repentance and scolded the Pharisees he was acting in accordance with the law and the plan as revealed by the prophets.
When Jesus laid down the new covenant and the Church, he fulfilled the law in every detail, and he himself said sooner shall heaven and earth pass away than one jot or tiddle of the law. (Jot is the smallest letter and tiddle is smaller.)
When Paul proclaimed that he was sent by Jesus to the gentiles, he wasn't even adding anything new except that he himself was sent.
When John saw the heavens rolled back as a scroll and prophesied the end times, still he contradicted nothing, and the framework for understanding Revelation was written by Daniel.
Those who are wise know there are prophets yet to come, and know the test of a prophet is in his prophesy of future events, for that is written in the law. God is not a man that he changes his mind. What he has promised he will do, he will do. That is the essence of the sign of the prophet. God speaks through the prophet and says "I will do this." Do not be deceived, for many will come in the last days with signs and wonders.
Jesus according to many Christians may or may not be the last prophet.
What is known is that Our Lord is not the last person to prophesy. Acts 2 tells us that in the end times many will prophecy in his name.
17“ ‘In the last days, God says, I will pour out my Spirit on all people. Your sons and daughters will prophesy, your young men will see visions, your old men will dream dreams. 18Even on my servants, both men and women, I will pour out my Spirit in those days, and they will prophesy. 19I will show wonders in the heavens above and signs on the earth below, blood and fire and billows of smoke. 20The sun will be turned to darkness and the moon to blood before the coming of the great and glorious day of the Lord. 21And everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.’ - Acts 2
The answers so far seem to overlook the obvious: Jesus is not (according to my understanding of Christianity*) a prophet at all. Jesus is the Son of God, and in some way part of God in the form of the Trinity of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. So God is three "persons" while being one - and do not ask me to explain how that makes sense. Wikipedia tries https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinity but I think you actually have to believe in the religion to understand it :-)
So Jesus is fundamentally different from the prophets that came before and after, who were human persons granted foreknowledge of events. (And likewise the Islamic prophet Muhammed, who is AFAIK not claimed to be divine.) If he made prophecies (which I don't offhand recall), they were incidental to his role as "savior".
*I am not one, though I was raised as such.
If Christians believe the Bible there is a named prophet who came after Jesus, specifically Agabus.
27 During this time some prophets came down from Jerusalem to Antioch.
28 One of them, named Agabus, stood up and through the Spirit predicted that a severe famine would spread over the entire Roman world. (This happened during the reign of Claudius.)
10 After we had been there a number of days, a prophet named Agabus came down from Judea.
11 Coming over to us, he took Paul’s belt, tied his own hands and feet with it and said, “The Holy Spirit says, ‘In this way the Jewish leaders in Jerusalem will bind the owner of this belt and will hand him over to the Gentiles.’ ”
12 When we heard this, we and the people there pleaded with Paul not to go up to Jerusalem.
When a Muslim asks "Is Jesus the last Prophet?" he means "Will there be any religious leaders coming after Jesus who will supplant him?"
Jesus is the last Prophet in the sense that no religious leader will come after him to supplant him. The way of salvation that Jesus brings is the last way of salvation for mankind. In truth, the way of salvation proclaimed by Jesus has always been the only way that can bring forgiveness and can save from God's judgement.
Where the Bible speaks of prophets coming after the time of Christ they will be those who declare once again the message of Jesus, or bring specific limited messages to specific groups of people at specific times (or they might be false prophets, who are not really prophets at all). There will be no religious leaders who supplant Jesus, there will be no true, godly, religious leaders who supplant Jesus as the last Prophet in the Muslim sense of Prophet/religious leader.
This answer is really only an addition to the very good answer of Cerulean Chelonii, adding only what he has left out.
Jesus made clear there will be no new religious leader sent from God, with a new message, coming after him:-
And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached in all the world as a witness to all the nations, and then the end will come. (Matthew 24:14)
Clearly, then, according to Jesus, his message will continue to be preached until the Day of Judgement... nothing will supplant it.
Jesus's last words, after his resurrection, in the Gospel According to Matthew are:
All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Go ye therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all things that I have commanded you; and, lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age. Amen. (Matthew 28:18-20).
Clearly again, Jesus does not anticipate any new true Prophet of God coming after him; his message remains the only saving message until the end of the age.
Jesus instituted two sacraments for his Church, baptism and the Lord's Supper (or whatever name you choose to call it). In the Lord's Supper, without getting bogged down in theological niceties, Christians eat bread and wine thus eating the Lord's flesh and drinking the Lord's blood. On the day our Saviour instituted the Lord's Supper he said:
This cup is the new covenant in my blood. This do, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me. For as often as you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death till he come. (1 Corinthians 11:25,26)
Clearly again, Jesus tells us the Lord's Supper will be an institution until Jesus returns to judge the world on the Day of Judgement.
When the Apostle Paul remonstrated with the Christians in the Galatian church(es) he wrote:
I marvel that you are so soon turning away from him who called you in the grace of Christ, to a different gospel, which is not another; but there are some who trouble you and want to pervert the gospel of Christ. But even if we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel to you than what we have preached to you, let him be accursed. As we have said before, so now I say again, if anyone preaches any other gospel to you than what you have received, let him be accursed. (Galatians 1:6-9)
Paul, then, clearly taught there is no other gospel, neither would there ever be any other gospel. The gospel that Paul taught is the gospel of Christ, it is the same gospel, and it is the only gospel till the end of the age.
In the letter to the Hebrews we are clearly told that the ministry of Jesus continues for ever in Heaven for his people:
Also there were many priests [in the days of the Old Testament before Christ was born], because they were prevented by death from continuing. But he [Jesus], because he continues forever, has an unchangeable priesthood. Therefore he is able to save to the uttermost all who come to God by him, seeing he always lives to make intercession for them. For such a High Priest was fitting for us, who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and has become higher than the heavens... but the word of oath, which came after the law [of Moses] appoints the Son [of God] who has been perfected forever. (Hebrews 7:23-26, 28).
And the Bible ends with this warning to anyone who would try to subvert the message of Jesus, the last Prophet:
For I testify to everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: if anyone adds to these things, God will add to him the plagues which are written in this book; and if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part from the Book of Life, from the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book. He [Jesus] who testifies to these things says "Surely I am coming quickly." Even so, come Lord Jesus! The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. (Revelation 22:18-21)