As you may know, God is never mentioned in the book of Esther, either by name (Yahweh), title (Adonai), or being (El). Neither is prayer.

Why not? I realize this is rather open ended, so I'll try to give some objective criteria:

  1. If it never mentions God, why is it in the canon?
  2. What is the theological application to be gained from Esther given the lack of any reference to God.
  3. waves hands

I have a few thoughts on this myself, but i'll try to hold them until I can get a good sampling of answers.

(also, why hasn't this been asked yet? Have I missed an obvious duplicate? Or stumbled into the Area51 of ✝.SE?)

  • 4
    FYI, the additions to Esther, recognized by the RCC but not Protestants do mention God, if my memory is correct. May 4, 2012 at 2:48

5 Answers 5

  1. The Book of Esther's legitimacy as part of the canon of Christian scripture has been the subject of debate because there is no direct reference to God. The compilation of the original Bible is largely obscured in history (e.g. the Song of Solomon has been likewise disputed because of its romantic content), but Esther may have been included because of its rich demonstration of Christian values such as loyalty, courage, faith, and fasting (and by implication, prayer).

  2. Even though God is never directly mentioned in the book, His Providence is distinctly evidenced in the deliverance of the Jews in the face of great opposition and terrible odds. It is a witness of God's mindfulness of His people, His recognition of their faith, and His direct intervention in their lives despite His indirect presence among them. In fact, the refrain of mention of His name emphasizes this contrast: that even though God isn't directly with us (as it would seem), His hand is still mighty on behalf of His faithful, and thus, is actually with us.

This answer by Warren suggests that Esther prefigures Mary, a significant example of faith and virtue.

Embedded in Esther 4:13-16 is the confidence in a sure deliverance by Providence: whether by Esther's house or by some other means, the Jews would be delivered. So while the historical accuracy of Esther is debated here or there, I for one personally love the book because of the inspiring display of virtues, and the profound example of faith by fasting, courage/loyalty, and patriotism.

  • 2
    #2 is exactly what I was thinking. +1. Mar 31, 2012 at 17:27
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    elaborating on my previous comment - it seems that God is intentionally not mentioned in order to, as you said, emphasize his very real presence. Considering the fact that the characters never mention God either, maybe the author is showing how God works even when his people forget him. (though that's not necessarily the take away, just a guess) Mar 31, 2012 at 18:06
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    To expand on the answer to 2 and your elaboration, @ThomasShields, one could reason that if the book just said 'God did it,' then people would say 'Oh, well, fine then,' but if the book says 'Mordecai and Esther fasted and prayed fervently, and what they hoped for came about,' then people will say, "Perhaps this God of theirs really listens to prayer." Leading a conclusion but letting people make it themselves is a powerful persuasive tool.
    – asfallows
    Apr 6, 2012 at 12:51

You have to remember that the Old Testament canon was not set by Christians. but Jews. The RCC Old Testament canon is that of the Septuagint, a Greek translation of the Jewish Holy Scriptures done by Jews in the third century before Christ, and by extension, before the church was even thought of. Back then, the Jewish canon obviously included these extra books we today call the Apocrypha/Deuterocanon. The Protestant canon follows the modern Jewish canon (the one that was established at the caouncil of Yavneh by the rabbis around the end of the first century after Christ). They dropped the deuterocanon, but kept the books that make up the protestant Old Testament.

Anyway, Esther is in the Christian Bible because it is in the Jewish Bible. Why would the Jews include it in their Bible? Chiefly because it tells the story for one of their feasts, that of Purim. Purim is a joyous festival in which they act out the story of Esther by reading through the book of Esther.


I think the primary reason Esther is there is to show the hand of God in preserving the line of His Messiah. Without Esther's intervention the Jews would have been destroyed and the line of the Messiah crushed. So whether God is ever mentioned or not, this book contains a pivotal story in the march toward the coming of Jesus.

In our family we actually don't think too highly of Esther's character. She was willing to disobey God's law by sleeping with the King. Perhaps you could argue that she was forced to come to the King's palace, but that isn't a necessary conclusion from the text. Unlike her predecessors, Daniel, Shadrach, Meshech and Abednego, who abstained from the King of Babylon's delicacies and were rewarded, Esther fully partakes of all the preparations of the Persian harem in preparation for her night with the King.

Despite all that, however, Esther shows God's work in preparing for the coming of the Messiah. Interestingly, it appears John is telling us in John 5 that Jesus celebrated Purim so that is possibly another link between Esther and Christ.

Hopefully some helpful thoughts.


I remembered reading once that God's name appears in Esther in acrostic form. Today I found the link explaining how it works:


I'll leave it to you all to decide if this is just clever hunting on the part of a zealous reader or inspiration within the text.

  • Excellent points here! I am curious what if any sources could be referenced to defend this position since it is so often glossed over our given a different emphasis in so many traditions today.
    – Caleb
    Apr 6, 2012 at 12:37
  • @Caleb, here is one primary source touching both the lack of piety on Esther's part and the pivotal place in salvation history: ligonier.org/learn/devotionals/queen-esther Apr 6, 2012 at 18:28

Now, I'm a little naive because I'm way way way more familiar with the Golden Books version of Esther that I've read to my kids a zillion times. But didn't Esther proclaim a 3 day fast with the intention of saving her people. There's a picture of her praying with her attendants so it just sort of confused me that prayer wasn't obviously an important part of who Esther was (as a person and a book).

Esther 4:15-16 (NIV)

15 Then Esther sent this reply to Mordecai: 16 “Go, gather together all the Jews who are in Susa, and fast for me. Do not eat or drink for three days, night or day. I and my attendants will fast as you do. When this is done, I will go to the king, even though it is against the law. And if I perish, I perish.”

Fasting for three days is not to make Esther appear haggard when she approaches the king. Apparently she's even more radiant than ever. She desires something only God can give her, the means at hand are fasting. It's only God who is moved by the fasting.

Maybe I'm echoing the previous, very good answer, but I just thought a few more things could be said about this.


I would say that the Book of Esther does mention God's name, a few times, but they are hidden in acrostics.

Here are the instances:

enter image description here

  • 1
    This seems a bit tenuous to me May 20, 2013 at 17:16
  • I tend to agree with Affable Greek - it seems like a real stretch (or at least extremely subtle) to call this an acrostic of YHWH. A typical acrostic would (like Ps. 119 or Prov. 31:10-31) be the first letter of each verse consecutively spelling out the word. (as in an alphabet acrostic: Aleph, beth, gimel, daleth, he, waw...). But I am sure people have already looked for YHWH or Elohim this way and probably haven't found it (I am assuming). Jun 22, 2015 at 22:19
  • Have you got that picture handy still?
    – Peter Turner
    Jun 24, 2015 at 21:26

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