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In Luke we are told,

Luke 22:3And Satan entered into Judas who was called Iscariot, belonging to the number of the twelve. 4And he went away and discussed with the chief priests and officers how he might betray Him to them.

So then, did Judas sin or was it Satan inside him sinning?

If a computer hacker uses my computer to comit a crime all liability falls on the hacker using my computer. In the same way Satan utilized Judas as a vessel.

Did Judas have free will in this matter (elsewhere in the Bible it says “Resist Satan and he will flee from you”, does that apply here?)

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    Judas' moral state becomes clear with the later disclosure by John that Judas was stealing and, by that theft, was depriving others of much needed charitable contributions.This deliberate moral state - the repeated act of theft - needs to be considered in juxtaposition to the stated question, as it paved the way for Satan's entrance. – Nigel J Mar 1 at 21:24
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Judas' moral state becomes clear with the later disclosure by John that Judas was stealing and, by that theft, was depriving others of much needed charitable contributions.This deliberate moral state - the repeated act of theft - needs to be considered in juxtaposition to the stated question, as it paved the way for Satan's entrance.

Judas had not been resisting Satan over the matter of secret theft.

This paved the way for much greater sin, later. Then, Satan came in like a flood and took him over completely.

Then saith one of his disciples, Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, which should betray him, Why was not this ointment sold for three hundred pence, and given to the poor? This he said, not that he cared for the poor; but because he was a thief, and had the bag, and bare what was put therein. John 12 5,6 KJV.

The covetousness is apparent, the very calculation of value (and lost revenue to the thief) gives him away. This precipitated something within him. Was his betrayal a matter of recuperating the lost opportunity ?

What a shocking state he was already in ! He is irked by the loving act of the woman who 'squandered' the treasure of the spice on Jesus, anointing him for his burial, which was the only preparation received since, later, the women who went to anoint him, found him already risen.

Those around Judas were involved in charitable works, and in devotion to the Lord. He was fixated with money.

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In addition to Nigel's answer. We are cautioned to be sober and vigilant, and to put on the whole armour of God as a guard against Satan.

Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour (1 Peter 5:8)

Put on the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil... Above all, taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked. (Ephesian 6:11-16)

Judas did none of that, but allowed himself to continue in covetousness. We do not stay the same, with each ray of grace, we either accept it and become more like Jesus, or deny it and become more like Satan. Judas continued in his sin until Satan presented him an overmastering temptation.

Interesting, Satan had once used Peter also. It shows how easily we can become prey if we are not prayerful. However, Peter repented and eventually became a better man because of it.

Then Peter took him [Jesus], and began to rebuke him, saying, Be it far from thee, Lord: this shall not be unto thee. But he turned, and said unto Peter, Get thee behind me, Satan: thou art an offence unto me: for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but those that be of men. (Matthew 16:22-23)

And Peter remembered the words of Jesus, who said unto him, Before the cock crows, you shall deny me three times. And he went out, and wept bitterly. (Matthew 26:75)

On the other hand, those who refuse to repent will become like the condition of those belonging in Babylon in the last days.

And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird. (Rev 18:2)

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