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Suppose that a hostile unbeliever meets a Catholic priest. The unbeliever is a blasphemer and firmly stated that he never wants to become a Christian. However later that day, he is dying and non compos mentis. The priest while the unbeliever does not know what he is doing, grabs him and baptized him with the baptismal formula. Immediately after he dies.

According to Catholicism, did he go to Heaven?

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    Your scenario makes it sound like the priest forced baptism on the unbeliever: "The priest while the unbeliever does not know what he is doing, grabs him and baptized him with the baptismal formula." Baptism can not be forced on someone. One must not baptize a person who has lost his or her mind, if this person didn't show their intention to be baptized while they were still mentally competent. [Summa Theologica, III, q. 68. a. 7, a. 10, a. 12].
    – Ken Graham
    Nov 9, 2018 at 3:55

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The baptism would not be valid.

Also the priest would be reprimanded if it was discovered.

Canon law lays down the conditions for adult baptism.

Can. 865 §1. For an adult to be baptized, the person must have manifested the intention to receive baptism, have been instructed sufficiently about the truths of the faith and Christian obligations, and have been tested in the Christian life through the catechumenate. The adult is also to be urged to have sorrow for personal sins.

§2. An adult in danger of death can be baptized if, having some knowledge of the principal truths of the faith, the person has manifested in any way at all the intention to receive baptism and promises to observe the commandments of the Christian religion.

Also, thanks to Ken Graham:

Baptism can not be forced on someone. One must not baptize a person who has lost his or her mind, if this person didn't show their intention to be baptized while they were still mentally competent. [Summa Theologica, III, q. 68. a. 7, a. 10, a. 12].

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  • Not so fast. I upvote your answer but understand that it was God's providence that got the priest to be present and possibly baptizing that person.
    – Grasper
    Nov 6, 2018 at 19:33
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    Note that I carefully did not say "he goes to hell". God's providence can indeed work in mysterious ways. Nov 6, 2018 at 20:59
  • If in doubt, one may always baptize conditionally.
    – Ken Graham
    Nov 9, 2018 at 14:20

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