NIV - Romans 9:17
(17) For Scripture says to Pharaoh: "I raised you up for this very purpose, that I might display my power in you and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.

(18a) Therefore God has mercy on whom he wants to have mercy,
(18b) and he hardens whom he wants to harden."

Since I'm not from an English speaking country, I have a difficulty to know what it means by the time I read the word "raised". Almost all English versions of Romans 9:17 use the word "raised" but there are two version (Contemporary English Version and Good News Translation) which directly describe it as "made king".

Still I check the Exodus 9:16.

NLT - Exodus 9:16
But I have spared you for a purpose--to show you my power and to spread my fame throughout the earth.

Christian Standard Bible - Exodus 9:16
However, I have let you live for this purpose: to show you my power and to make my name known on the whole earth.

Between (A) "made king" and (B) "let you live", I choose B for "raised". And by choosing B, I feel it goes well with the Romans 9:18a. So, God does not kill Pharaoh because He choose to give mercy (let him live) to Pharaoh.

But choosing B doesn't go well with Romans 9:18b. It's still also not connected if I choose A. The only thing which I think "connected" if I made a conclusion by myself about "raised" which is coming from Exodus 7:3

NIV - Exodus 7:3
But I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and though I multiply my signs and wonders in Egypt

So Romans 9:17 become like this :
For Scripture says to Pharaoh: "I hardened you up for this very purpose, that I might display my power in you and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.

From here, now I can separate that Romans 9:18a is referring to verse 15, and Romans 9:18b is referring to verse 17.

And if I still insist the meaning of "raised" in verse 17 is B, then (to me) in order verse 17 connect with verse 18, I need to use a chronology like this : "God has mercy (let him live) to Pharaoh in order He can harden Pharaoh's heart so then He might display His power". A bit awkward to me :).

My question is :
1. What did Paul mean on the word "raised" ?
2. Is there a connection between verse 17 and 18 ?

To help with this exegesis, you should consider Dan 4:25.

the most High rulers in the kingdom of men and gives it to whomsoever he will (Dan 4:25, KJV)

Here God makes a point of humbling Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, to show that He chooses the leaders of the world and gives it to whoever He wills.

Given this case, why was that particular pharaoh in power during the time of God's deliverance of the Israelites? Was it because this pharaoh was a man after God's own heart, similar to David? No, quite the opposite! God already knew "the Pharaoh will not hearken unto you" (Exodus 7:4). He allowed the Pharaoh's heart to be hardened. Rather, it was for the purpose of delivering Israel out by great signs and wonders (Exodus 7:3), and for judgement of Egypt (Exodus 7:4) that a hard-hearted pharaoh ruled.

But Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you, that I may lay my hand upon Egypt, and bring forth mine armies, and my people the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great judgments. (Exodus 7:4)

Therefore, read in this context, "raise thee up" in Exodus 9:16 means "put you in power".

And in very deed for this cause have I raised thee up, for to shew in thee my power; and that my name may be declared throughout all the earth.

How then does this relate to Romans 9? Due to God's foreknowledge, the pharaoh was a "vessel of wrath fitted to destruction" (Rom 9:22) that God suffered long to make His power known. He was not actually a "vessel of mercy" that God had prepared for glory. (Rom 9:23)

What if God, willing to shew his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much longsuffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction: 23 And that he might make known the riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy, which he had afore prepared unto glory, (Rom 9:22-23)

Therefore God was not showing mercy to the pharaoh, but rather the pharaoh (Rom 9:17) was given as an example of "those who he will he hardeneth" (Rom 9:18b). Both the Israelites and the pharaoh were sinners, but one He showed mercy to and the other He allowed to be hardened.

Therefore hath he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth. (Rom 9:18)

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