In studying Christianity it is inevitable that one comes to the point where the existence of God is compared to the existence of the Universe. This is loosely embraced in the Cosmological argument.

The cosmological argument is the argument that the existence of the world or universe is strong evidence for the existence of a God who created it. The existence of the universe, the argument claims, stands in need of explanation, and the only adequate explanation of its existence is that it was created by God. Like most arguments for the existence of God, the cosmological argument exists in several forms; two of those are: the temporal, kalam cosmological argument (i.e. the first cause argument), and the modal argument from contingency. The main distinguishing feature between these two arguments is the way in which they evade an initial objection to the argument, introduced with a question: “Does God have a cause of his existence?” [Robin Le Poidevin, Arguing for Atheism, Routledge 1996, Chapter 1]

Basically the reasoning that all things have a causative factor is the basis for proclaiming that God exists. However, the argument is made that if all things must have a causative factor then God also must have a causative factor. In attempting to verify the existence of God the logic of the existence of the Cosmos is an attempt to prove that God exists. The fallacy of this argument lies in the fact that God and creation are existent in two very differing realms. While the Cosmos is in the material realm (where objects have matter and occupy space) God resides in the Spiritual realm (which has no matter and occupies no Space).

Spirituality has no need of a beginning or an end since there is no form of matter to decay.

The concept of the Spiritual Realm is hard to grasp in that it has no substance. My question is does any Denomination separate its belief in Heaven from the prevalent Cosmological arguments and portend that Spirituality having no substance and occupying no space has no need for a causative factor.

  • I thought they all did. Interesting question. Jan 12, 2018 at 13:30
  • Is there any scriptural basis for your assertion that the Spiritual Realm has no substance and occupies no space? Because I disagree with that premise. Jun 9, 2023 at 19:54
  • The objection “what created/caused God” has been recognized by the majority of philosophers as bankrupt. God is by definition uncreated/lacks contingency/lacks actuality. This “spirituality” question misses the mark entirely.
    – Luke Hill
    Jun 11, 2023 at 6:10
  • 1
    (Compared or contrasted) This question gets off on the wrong foot. God is NOT compared to the Universe, He is contrasted, in the Cosomological Argu. God has aseity, existence within Himself. The physical universe has contingency, needed causation for existence. With this understanding, denominations welcome the Cosmological Argument. They have a healthy respect for the different essences of the Great Spirit, and the Earth beneath.
    – ray grant
    Jun 11, 2023 at 22:37

3 Answers 3


I think you're misunderstanding the cosmological argument. The argument states that everything that we see is contingent on the existence of something else - for anything we see, it wouldn't have come into being if not for the existence of something else. The existence of those things in turn is contingent on other things, and so on. As a consequence, a complete explanation of the existence of anything (including its causes, the causes of its causes,...) must either go on infinitely, or terminate in an entity which could exist without being created. The argument states that there is no actually infinite series in the physical universe, thus that the first of these possibilities cannot occur. Therefore, it concludes, an uncreated being must exist, who is ultimately responsible for the existence of all things in the universe.

The argument is not seen to need to refer to a distinction between spiritual and physical worlds. Thomas Aquinas, for example, listed this as one of his arguments for the existence of God, as well as insisting separately that God, a spiritual being, had no location and took up no space.

Not all people, even within a given denomination, will necessarily give credence to the cosmological argument. I'm not aware of any denomination that specifically states that the reason God is uncreated is that he is a spiritual being.

  • As you say the Cosmological argument states that all things whether visible or invisible has a cause, and uses that argument to say that there must therefore be a uncreated being (God) without a causative factor. I ask if since a Spiritual Realm does not fit into either category of THINGS ; is there a Denomination which believes that God as Spirit is in a class differing from both things visible and invisible.
    – BYE
    Jan 12, 2018 at 13:03
  • "Is there a Denomination which believes that God as Spirit is in a class differing from both things visible and invisible" doesn't seem to match the question you set in your body, namely "does any Denomination separate its belief in Heaven from the prevalent Cosmological arguments and portend that Spirituality having no substance and occupying no space has no need for a causative factor." Which are you asking? Jan 12, 2018 at 16:52
  • I hope I'm not showing my ignorance, but aren't they both the same question, worded differently?
    – BYE
    Jan 12, 2018 at 18:45

Different Essences The Cosmological Argument is not a comparison with two equals: one developing (creating) the other. Rather, what we know about the universe is that it is not eternal, but had a beginning (Einstein, Hubble, et al.) And Stephen Hawking showed that "time" had a beginning. And the scientific Law of Causation requires "that any thing that had a beginning (came into existence) must have a Sufficient Cause" for its coming into being. (This is not the Law of Cause and Effect, which is different.)

But there is no danger of thinking (resorting to) the idea of another physical Entity being considered as its Cause because it is impossible. A physical entity would just be another part of the Universe (though at some distance?)...and part of the problem. The Cause has to be outside time and space otherwise the concept of self-causation would come into play---and that is impossible, illogical...absurd. The Cause would have to be spirit and eternal (outside of matter and of time). This is what God has been revealed to be.

The Cosmological Argument does not ignore the Spirituality of God...it requires it! Heaven's territory is not transgressed by this argument, nor is the essence of God demeaned. Logical conclusions from existential reality demand their existence. (Result of deductions by open, unprejudiced minds.)

Philosopher/theologians from Protestant denominations are keen on these facts. "Spiritual" heaven is recognized, and this earthly, physical existence is dependent on it...and this spiritual reason (cause) for its existence can not be separated. No God, no universe! (nihil, sine Deo). The heavens (universe) declare the glory of God! is the way the Psalmist put it.


Does the cosmological argument ignore the spirituality of God? “… does any Denomination separate its belief in Heaven from the prevalent Cosmological arguments and portend that Spirituality having no substance and occupying no space has no need for a causative factor.”

The cosmological argument typically refers to the idea that: assuming or postulating time-forward causation in the physical world, one could reason back to a beginning (first causation) or “God”. Philosophically, one could end up in a contradiction of the sort of “then what created God?”, or conclude that there must be some concept out of this system, such as a beginning without cause, or something infinite. Many of the arguments and lines of reasoning about this topic are alike to thinking in integers and reasoning about what comes before minus infinity. To deal with such more abstract concepts as infinity, spirituality or things outside of the physical world, requires additional assumptions or postulations, and therefore, will likely result in a variety of different perspectives, theories, and religious views. The information in the bible about these topics is also rather limited, but there are however quite some bible scriptures that can give some direction. The following text provides a brief summary of the perspective of Jehovah’s Witnesses on God the Father (Jehovah or Yahweh), the Son Jesus, and other spiritual beings, and some of their relations to matter time, and causation in the spiritual and physical realm.

  1. Jehovah God the Father, is without beginning and end.

Psalm 90:2 Before the mountains were formed or the earth and the world were brought forth, you are God from eternity to eternity. (ISV)

Isaiah 43:10 Ye are my witnesses, saith Jehovah, and my servant whom I have chosen; that ye may know and believe me, and understand that I am he: before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me. (ASV)

Isaiah 46:9 Remember the former things of long ago, That I am God, and there is no other. I am God, and there is no one like me. 10 From the beginning I foretell the outcome, And from long ago the things that have not yet been done. I say, ‘My decision (Footnote „purpose“) will stand, And I will do whatever I please.’(NWT)

  1. Jehovah God the Father is timeless.

Isaiah 57:15 For thus says the One who is high and lifted up, who inhabits eternity, whose name is Holy: “I dwell in a high and holy place, and with the oppressed and humble in spirit, to restore the spirit of the lowly and revive the heart of the contrite. (BSB)

2 Peter 3:8 But, beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, that one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day. (KJV)

  1. Jesus the son, had a beginning, and everything is created through him.

Colossians 1:15 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 16 For by him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities—all things were created through him and for him. (ESV, See also Revelation 3:14)

  1. Other spiritual Beings, Satan the devil, and demons had a beginning (see (3)), and they are spatially bounded in some sense.

Revelation 12: 7 Now war arose in heaven, Michael and his angels fighting against the dragon. And the dragon and his angels fought back, 8 but he was defeated, and there was no longer any place for them in heaven. 9 And the great dragon was thrown down, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world—he was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him. (ESV)

  1. Jesus, other spiritual beings, and physical beings are not timeless or outside of time.

Mark 13:32 “But about that day or hour no one knows, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father. (NIV)

  1. God the Father is not only identified as the cause or creator of the beginning of the spiritual and physical universe but also as a causation effect in the future.

When commissioning Moses to lead God’s people out of Egypt, Jehovah revealed an aspect of his personality by using a related verb to describe his name, this time in the first person. The Bible record states: “God said to Moses: ‘I Will Become What I Choose to Become’ [or, “I Will Prove to Be What I Will Prove to Be”]. And he added: ‘This is what you are to say to the Israelites, “I Will Become has sent me to you.”’” (Ex. 3:14; ftn.) Thus Jehovah, in any circumstance, will become whatever is needed to accomplish his purpose.” (Source: "You Are My Witnesses", Watchtower July 15, 2014)

In summary from the perspective of Jehovah’s Witnesses, God is a spiritual being, without beginning, described as timelessness or outside of time, and He had no causative factor or was not created by another God/divine being but He is eternal. Jesus and other spiritual beings, however, do have a beginning and they are also not outside of time. Moreover, Jehovah’s Witnesses believe that God the Father is the causative factor, of the son Jesus, and that through Jesus, is the Creator of the rest of the spiritual and physical realm. Furthermore, the meaning of the name of God Yahweh or Jehovah is not only related to causation and creation in the past but also that of guiding and causing of an eternity of future events.

Further References
References are: Happiness—How to Find It Chapter 4: Learning About What You Cannot See

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