I don't know if there has been a solemn definition of the doctrine by a pope or council, but this definition is part of the deposit of faith. It is defined exactly as you state in the Catechism of the Catholic Church in point 1857, and the distinction between venial and mortal sin is also defined in point 1854.
Point 1854 states:
"Sins are rightly evaluated according to their gravity. The distinction between mortal and venial sin, already evident in Scripture, became part of the tradition of the Church. It is corroborated by human experience."
This point states that the doctrine is present in Scripture and is part of the tradition of the Church.
If we understand dogma to be "a truth appertaining to faith or morals, revealed by God, transmitted from the Apostles in the Scriptures or by tradition, and proposed by the Church for the acceptance of the faithful." Then yes, this definition of mortal sin is dogmatic.
If by dogma we mean a solemn declaration from the Church, I would still argue that yes it is dogmatic since it is defined in the CCC which is the product of a Council.
The Council of Trent also discusses mortal sin, but I haven't been able to find a definition in it. Perhaps one of the earlier councils has a definition.