Friday afternoon to early before dawn on Sunday does not comprise three days and three nights. The Catholic and predominantly Protestant teachings on the Good Friday crucifixion may very well be wrong.
It does seem to be true that any part of the day was counted as the full day, and any part of the night as the full night (inclusive count). But, still three days and three nights were needed (Matt. 12:40).
Gabriel told Daniel (Dan. 9:27) that Christ would be cut off in the midst of the week. While the "weeks" of that prophesy were "years", it may very well mean both the middle of the seventh year (3-1/2 years) as well as the literal middle of the week. God's word is fully complete in many ways.
Our Friday...if it can be reconciled to the Hebrew day 6, which may not be at all the same.... is not the middle of the week. That would be our Wednesday, or the Hebrew day 4. They did not name the days, but only counted them.
The argument for this viewpoint runs as follows:
If Christ was crucified on Wednesday afternoon, then we count Wed. as day 1, Wed. night as night 1; Thurs. day as day 2 and Thurs. night as night 2; Friday day as day 3 and Friday night as night 3.
Either our 6 PM or our 12 AM was the start of the next day in the Hebrew "day", as there are different definitions of the "day". So, our Friday night would have been their Saturday / Sabbath. And, early dawn of the next "sabbath" / Saturday would have been the resurrection day.
It is interesting that ALL of the gospels are literally translated in Young's as "on the first of the sabbaths".
"And on the eve of the sabbaths, at the dawn, toward the first of the sabbaths, came Mary the Magdalene, and the other Mary, to see the sepulchre," (YLT)
" and early in the morning of the first of the sabbaths, they come unto the sepulchre, at the rising of the sun," (YLT)
"And on the first of the sabbaths, at early dawn, they came to the tomb, bearing the spices they made ready, and certain [others] with them," (YLT)
"And on the first of the sabbaths, Mary the Magdalene doth come early (there being yet darkness) to the tomb, and she seeth the stone having been taken away out of the tomb," (YLT)
It may very well be that "the first of the sabbaths" on the eve of the sabbaths were speaking of after the holy sabbath days of Passover and Unleavened Bread (eve of the Sabbaths) on the 14th and 15th of Nissan, they would have begun to count seven sabbaths to get to Pentecost (Lev. 23:15).
So, in this view, "the first of the sabbaths" would have been the first regular sabbath / Saturday to count seven regular sabbaths to Pentecost.
This does seem to fit nicely with a literal mid-week cut off of Dan. 9:27 and does count a literal three days and three nights which Christ prophesied in Matt. 12:40. This makes an attractive argument but for one circumstance.
The two disciples that Jesus met on the road to Emmaus counters the idea of a Sabbath resurrection day. Emmaus could have been one of several villages walking distance from Jerusalem, the shortest of which appears to have been 36 stadia or about 1 mile. It could have been as much as 7 miles from Jerusalem. Either distance was too far for the disciples to consider traveling on the Sabbath.
Therefore, it appears that "first of the Sabbaths" must be understood as Sabbath + 1, or the first day of the first sabbath week to Pentecost.
That still leaves the discussion of the crucifixion on the afternoon of Nissan 14, eating the Passover meal after sundown which began Nissan 15 and trying to determine if Nissan 14 was a Thursday or Friday.