I was baptized as a Catholic at a young age, however have never attended a Catholic church or mass, or otherwise practiced Catholicism. Instead, I now am a non-Catholic Christian. Would other Christian denominations typically allow me to be baptized into their denomination, even if I was baptized as a Catholic? What is an overview of common views?
It's going to depend on the denomination you want to be baptized by.
For denominations that accept infant baptism you have no need to be rebaptized. Your Catholic baptism is a valid Christian baptism. Even if you want to those denominations probably won't baptise you again, because it is virtually universally believed that you cannot be validly baptized twice. However they will happily admit you to their denomination on the basis of your Catholic baptism. They may even have a ceremony for admitting you.
Denominations that do not accept infant baptism will not consider your previous baptism valid, and will be very happy to baptize you. They will probably require it if you are to join their church.
If you want to be rebaptized, but your new denomination considers you already baptized, there is nothing to stop you having a private ceremony in which you dedicate you life to Jesus and are immersed in water. Your denomination may not consider it a baptism, but since they believe you are already baptized it won't be a problem.
A few denominations such as Jehovah's Witnesses and Latter Day Saints will require you to be rebaptized when you join them no matter who previously baptized you. There may also be a few other exceptions, mostly denominations that do not believe in the Trinity.