In Acts 1:12, the distance between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives is described as a "Sabbath day's walk." Now, my Bible's footnote attributes this distance to be one kilometer long but it gives no indication as to how it got that number.
In the NIV Text Notes that my Bible comes with, it says that a Sabbath day's walk was a distance "drawn from rabbinical reasoning based on several OT passages" and gives a few Old Testament verse references. One reference is to Exodus 16:29, which says
Bear in mind that the LORD has given you the Sabbath; that is why on the sixth day he gives you bread for two days. Everyone is to stay where they are on the seventh day; no one is to go out.
So based on this, wouldn't a "Sabbath day's walk" be a total of zero kilometers? Because "no one is to go out" on that day?
Another verse that my Text Note references (and is also referenced by other sources, such as this website) is Joshua 3:4, which, when added to verse two and three says
After three days the officers went throughout the camp, giving orders to the people: “When you see the ark of the covenant of the Lord your God, and the Levitical priests carrying it, you are to move out from your positions and follow it. Then you will know which way to go, since you have never been this way before. But keep a distance of about two thousand cubits between you and the ark; do not go near it.”
But this is just describing the Israelites crossing the Jordan River, and how much distance they should keep from the Ark of the Covenant? It has nothing to do with the Sabbath or a distance of walking?
So where does the term "a Sabbath's walk" come from? And how long is it?
*And if it really does stem from the Joshua reference, why would the rabbis use that verse? How does it make any sense?