From the evangelical perspective, considering that Jesus has both human and divine natures in one person, did His divine nature suffer on the cross along with his human nature?
Just as there are differences of belief about the nature of Christ, there are some different ideas about this in some branches of Christianity. However the mainline orthodox belief has a pretty settled answer to this: yes.
Assuming ⓐ the trinity, one God in three persons and ⓑ that Jesus was God the son having two complete natures, the logic goes something like this. Different branches of Christianity use different terms for some of this, but the basic argument is the same.
- The ‘cup’ as referenced in Jesus' prayer was God's divine wrath against sin.
- Yes Jesus bore physical suffering as a human and his human nature bore the brunt of the pain the Romans inflicted.
- But the significance of the cross was more than just a Roman torture and execution, he was also subjected to God's wrath.
- “Why have you forsaken me?” was not a question about why he was left to hang on at tree, it was an expression of God turning his back on his son, subjecting him to ‘death’ in the sense of separation from God.
- No human nature would have been able to bear that punishment inflicted directly by God — he would have neither the stamina nor the value to make such an action more meaningful than it was for the thieves he was crucified with.
Ergo the divine nature of God must have been subjected to and born the divine wrath side of things.
I question some time ago that asks about the same problem from a different angle, see How is Christ's death so significant? for a little more detail on the significance of “one man on a cross”.