The Biblical basis for the penal requirement comes from a prophecy by Isaiah.
Isa 53:10 Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise him (Jesus); he (The Lord)
hath put him (Jesus) to grief: when thou (the Lord) shalt make his
soul (Jesus') an offering for sin, he (the Lord) shall see his seed
(Jesus), he shall prolong his days (Bring Jesus back to Life), and the
pleasure of the LORD shall prosper in his hand. 11 He (the Lord) shall
see of the travail of his (Jesus') soul, and shall be satisfied: by
his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall
bear their iniquities.
- Penal means: relating to, used for, or prescribing the punishment of offenders under the legal system.
the Jews had a legal system called the 10 commandments, some crimes were punishable by death, others require payment of money. see the book of Leviticus for a list of laws, and if broken, the severity of the penalties attached.
a Just judge must see that a guilty criminal is punished.
if the Judge lets the guilty criminal off the hook without the punishment then he is not fair, just, or worthy to have the honor of a judge.
Some people reason when they meet the God of the universe the great judge they reason that they're good enough to get into heaven and that their Good deeds Will outweigh their bad deeds.
But if this line of logic will not work with an honest human judge, How then do you expect it to work on The perfect all knowing judge of the universe?
Rom 3:26 says To declare, I say, at this time his righteousness: that
he might be just, and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus.
Romans 3:26 is telling us that God is fair, and that he is able to make sinners into born again saints, by declaring them righteous, but he doesn't overlook our sins, he doen't sweep sin under the rug. no, The Lord remembered to punish all our sins, 2000 years ago, when his beloved son hung on an old rugged cross. and when he sees we have faith in the blood of Jesus, when we believe that Jesus was punished for our sins, he saves us.
The gospel is defined as this in 1 Cor 15, that Jesus died for our sin, , was buried, and rose again the third day.
1 Cor 15:3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also
received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the
scriptures; 4 And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third
day according to the scriptures:
If you stood before a human judge, guilty of a crime and reasoned thus with him. “Oh your honorable judge I've done so much good, doesn't that take care of my bad deed and my crimes. Why must I be punished? You haven't even considered how much good I've done. Can't you let me off? I'm am very sorry.” simply put an Honest Judge cannot let a guilty person off the hook on account of their good deeds, Neither can the Lord God.
The proposal that Jesus makes to each of you is this. Jesus says. I will “pay your fines for sinning, I will do your time for sinning” I will allow my self to be put to death for the capitol offenses you have committed, I will lay down my life to be punished for all of your crimes.
So Jesus took up his cross and laid down his life, and bore all our sins on the cross.
Jesus in essence said “I will be the penal substitutional sacrifice for your crimes against God, because I love you so much, I will shed my sinless blood so that your sins can be punished and the Law can be satisfied.
The substitutionary character of the Atonement of Christ on the Cross is beautifully illustrated in the story of Barabbas in Matt 27:15-26
it was customary to liberate some notable criminal on Passover.
They chose Barabbas, and Jesus was turned over to the Officers of the Law for death by crucifixion.
by his death, as a substitute for Barabbas, Jesus, who was innocent, satisfied the “Law” and Barabbas was freed.
the Penal substitutional Atonement is the Scriptural view of the Atonement.
If Barabbas, after his liberation, had gone out to Calvary to witness the Crucifixion, and had been informed as to who it was that had taken his place on the central cross, he would have known five things
That he was a JUSTLY CONDEMNED SINNER
That Jesus was an INNOCENT SUFFERER.
That, Jesus, an ‘Innocent Sufferer’ had taken his place
That he HAD DONE NOTHING TO MERIT (earn) THAT SUBSTITUTION; he didn’t deserve what he got
That Christ's substitution in his place satisfied the LAW
IF Barabbas had gone to the site of the Crucifixion to witness it and others had said, there is the robber Barabbas, Arrest Him!!!
Barabbas would have said, "that Centurion cannot arrest me. It was that very same centurion who set me free this morning and told me that Jesus of Nazareth was to take MY place on the Cross, and his death SATISFIES THE LAW FOR ME; and I am free."
Barabbas was the first man to have a practical experience of the penal substutional Atonement
- IF Jesus had not hung on the Cross, then Barabbas would have had to.
There was at least one man in Jerusalem that day who understood,the meaning of Jesus’ death, and experienced its saving power: and that man’s was Barabbas.