Scholars or groups who directly adhere to the Dual Covenant Theology
Those churches or scholars who agree with the statements of the Council of Centers on Jewish-Christian Relations (CCJR)
The Christian Scholars Group on Christian-Jewish Relations is an
ecumenical gathering of about twenty Christian academicians who since
1969 have been exploring the theological relationship between Judaism
and Christianity. In 2002 it released this statement, which was
partially intended as a complement to a Jewish statement on Christians
and Christianity, Dabru Emet, issued two years earlier. The CSG
subsequently published a collection of essays that expands upon the
principles listed below, entitled Seeing Judaism Anew: Christianity's
Some points from the statement:
- The Bible both connects and separates Jews and Christians.
Some Jews and Christians today, in the process of studying the Bible
together, are discovering new ways of reading that provide a deeper
appreciation of both traditions. While the two communities draw from
the same biblical texts of ancient Israel, they have developed
different traditions of interpretation. Christians view these texts
through the lens of the New Testament, while Jews understand these
scriptures through the traditions of rabbinic commentary.
Referring to the first part of the Christian Bible as the "Old
Testament" can wrongly suggest that these texts are obsolete.
Alternative expressions - "Hebrew Bible," "First Testament," or
"Shared Testament" -- although also problematic, may better express
the church's renewed appreciation of the ongoing power of these
scriptures for both Jews and Christians.
- Affirming God's enduring covenant with the Jewish people has consequences for Christian understandings of salvation.
Christians meet God's saving power in the person of Jesus Christ and
believe that this power is available to all people in him. Christians
have therefore taught for centuries that salvation is available only
through Jesus Christ. With their recent realization that God's
covenant with the Jewish people is eternal, Christians can now
recognize in the Jewish tradition the redemptive power of God at work.
If Jews, who do not share our faith in Christ, are in a saving
covenant with God, then Christians need new ways of understanding the
universal significance of Christ.
- Christians should not target Jews for conversion.
In view of our conviction that Jews are in an eternal covenant with
God, we renounce missionary efforts directed at converting Jews. At
the same time, we welcome opportunities for Jews and Christians to
bear witness to their respective experiences of God's saving ways.
Neither can properly claim to possess knowledge of God entirely or
It is surprising that a recent controversial Roman Catholic document released in 10 December 2015 also seems to assume DCT as it discourages evangelism to Jews. However the Vatican also clarified that it is not a "doctrinal teaching of the Catholic Church," but a reflection based on doctrine and flowing from Vatican II's declaration "Nostra Aetate" on Catholic relations with other religions. It seems these views are rather in the line of liberal and secular trend under Pope Francis which many times seems to be inclusive towards all religions and lifestyles. It has been strongly criticized by some Christians scholars.
The motivation behind DCT may be the combination of both (1) trying to find Jewish roots of Christianity and (2) reconcile the fate of good people who die outside of faith in Christ.
Quote from wikipedia - Dual-covenant_theology
David H. Stern, a Messianic Jewish theologian, wrote that
dual-covenant theology is said to originate with Maimonides. It was
proffered in the 20th century by the Jewish philosopher Franz
Rosenzweig, and was elaborated upon by such theologians as Reinhold
Niebuhr and James Parkes.
These founders believe that Jesus' message is not for Jews but for
Gentiles and, that John 14:6 is to be understood thusly: "I am the
way, the truth and the life; and no Gentile comes to the father except
through me." Stern asserts that the problem of dual-covenant
theology is that "replacing Yeshua’s 'No one comes to the Father
except through me' with 'No Gentile comes...' does unacceptable
violence to the plain sense of the text and to the whole New