I'm fairly certain that the Catholic Church has issued a definitive teaching on this subject. That the soul is created at the moment of conception. Ideally an answer would cover every created soul (including me, you, Adam, Eve, Jeremiah, David, The Blessed Virgin Mary and Jesus Christ)
To answer fully your question, let me affirmed first that Origen view on pre-existence was truly condemned by the Catholic Church.
The Origenistic doctrine of pre-existence was condemned by the Church as incompatible with revelation. A Council of Constantinople (543 A.D.) anathematized those who "assert the fabulous pre-existence of souls, and the doctrine of the Apocatastasis, which logically flows therefrom...- Fr. Hardon thesis: In man there is one rational soul, which is immortal and imediately created by God alone.
To answer Canonically your question let's isolate first Adam & Eve as the Church Teaching decreed by Pope Pius XII declared in his encyclical “Humani Generis:” that a soul was immediately created at the moment of conception will not be appropriate.
"As Pope Pius XII declared in his encyclical “Humani Generis:” “The teaching authority of the church does not forbid that, in conformity with the present state of human sciences and sacred theology, research and discussions on the part of men experienced in both fields, take place with regard to the doctrine of evolution, insofar as it inquires into the origin of the human body as coming from pre-existent and living matter - for Catholic faith obliges us to hold that souls are immediately created by God.” (n,36)
But, pondering on Genesis1:27 after God had formed Adam;when the word stated was "formed" is this the equivalent of "conception" when the Church teaches the soul was immediately created and infused?
The answer is YES! Looking at Jeremiah1:5 passage God also used the word "formed";.."Before I formed you in the womb....the action of God were the same for Adam & Jeremiah.
"And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul."(Genesis1:27)
It would be wise to accept that when God formed Adam, it means while the body is being formed the soul was also formed immediately too, but only devoid of "sanctifying grace" until God breathe in Divine Life that makes Adam a Living soul meaning the "sanctifying grace or the spirit of God was poured into his soul in a degree of Original Holiness Justice only God knows.
This reflection is supported by numerous passages in scriptures;
"The Spirit of God has made me,
and the breath of the Almighty gives me life.(Job 33:4)
"But it is the spirit in man,
the breath of the Almighty, that makes him understand.(Job 32:8)
"The natural person does not accept the things of the Spirit of God, for they are folly to him, and he is not able to understand them because they are spiritually discerned."(1 Corinthians 2:14)
So the first man Adam was composed of body & soul with the spirit of God poured into his soul.
So, in Job passages we can see although Adam was already formed having "body & soul", this state is a dead soul without the "spirit of God or the sanctifying grace imparted into the soul" for it to enable to commune,understand the things of God and enjoy the friendship with God.
This is also very clear when Adam fall as the lost of 'sanctifying grace" brings death to the soul of Adam.
"For as the body apart from the spirit is dead, so also faith apart from works is dead."(James2:26)
"And you were dead in the trespasses and sins in which you once walked, following the course of this world, following the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that is now at work in the sons of disobedience— among whom we all once lived in …"(Ephesians 2:1–5)
How about Eve? since she was also formed, it follows that her soul was immediately formed too like Adam, but we can see that Eve was already pre-existed in the prophetic mind of God when he said the prophetic word "male & female He created them" although in reality Eve does not yet exist.
We can view the passage in the Day 6 of God creation when He uttered the creative word;
"Then God said, “Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild animals,[a] and over all the creatures that move along the ground.” So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them."
But since the Church condemned Origen view of pre-existent created soul separated from the body, this God word "male & female He created them" on Day 6 following a Day of Rest in the 7th day is only a prophetic word as Jesus revealed that the Abba Father continue to work in the Gospel of John;
“My Father is always at his work to this very day, and I too am working.” (John5:17)
The closest analogy we can have is with Mary, as scriptures stated that She is also a creature conceived and born in a Mother's Womb, the only difference is Mary was conceived free from original sin.
CCC492 The "splendor of an entirely unique holiness" by which Mary is "enriched from the first instant of her conception" comes wholly from Christ: she is "redeemed, in a more exalted fashion, by reason of the merits of her Son".136 The Father blessed Mary more than any other created person "in Christ with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places" and chose her "in Christ before the foundation of the world, to be holy and blameless before him in love".137
The most Blessed Virgin Mary was, from the first moment of her conception, by a singular grace and privilege of almighty God and by virtue of the merits of Jesus Christ, Savior of the human race, preserved immune from all stain of original sin.(Pope Pius IX, 1854)
Viewing Jesus soul was "begotten" and Mary's soul was immediately infused from the moment of conception.
We can see that Jeremiah case was no different, the only word that bring some additional pondering is the word "Before I formed you in the womb, I knew you"
The word "I knew you" cannot be clearly seen as "pre-existent soul" as it implied more on God talking about He knew what purpose or mission He would give to Jeremiah as clear out by the following words;
...And before you were born I consecrated you; I have appointed you a prophet to the nations."(Jeremiah1:5)
and the above passages speak of God pouring the "sanctifying grace" to Jeremiah's soul in advance by virtue of God's appointing his mission.
The only question I have with this passage is, does Jeremiah sanctification includes cleansing not just of original sin but even removal of the stain of sin?
The passage is not clear whether Jeremiah's soul was cleanse from the "stain of original sin" as we know that Baptism only cleanses us of Original Sin but not the complete removal of the stain.
We can likened Jeremiah to St.John the Baptist as they were both in the Womb when they received sanctifying grace only difference is St.John the Baptist was already six months old.
But the big difference here is,God is the one who consecrated Jeremiah while St.John the Baptist sanctification happened due to the Presence of Mary bearing the Child Jesus and the Holy Spirit overshadowing Her and Mary's FIAT accepting the Will of the Father.
So, the Trinitarian Faith and Witnessing of Mary enables Her to impart the Sanctifying Grace needed by St.John the Baptist.
Could this event speak also of Mary's pre-figuring Her role as Mediatrix of All Graces.
As we can see from the life of St.Joseph, he also is a receiver of all the Graces that is Overflowing from the Theotokos. As the name of St.Joseph means;
Joseph is a masculine given name originating from Hebrew, recorded in the Hebrew Bible, as יוֹסֵף, Standard Hebrew Yossef, Tiberian Hebrew and Aramaic Yôsēp̄. The name can be translated from Hebrew יוסף יהוה yosef YHWH as signifying "Yahweh/Jehovah shall increase/add". ... In Persian the name is called "Yousef".
St.Joseph increasing his graces due to the presence of Mary Mediatrix of All Graces as Jesus had not yet received the Anointing from the Baptism in the River Jordan.
**In conclusion, I embraced the teaching of the Catholic Church that the souls of all man including Jesus,Mary, St.Joseph,St.John the Baptist,Jeremiah, David, and all human being. Also by virtue of the word "formed" likened to "conception" we can also view Adam & Eve soul was immediately formed alongside of the their body.
So, the point of reference of the exact time soul was infused for all Mankind including Jesus,, Mary, St.Joseph and all the rest of Mankind including our first parent eventhough they were not conceived in the Mother's Womb but God had "formed" them also was likened to "conception" thru His Hands where Creation emanates.
Lastly, to provide a basis that Jesus although composed of Two Natures (Human & Divine) follows the universal law of conception subject to all mankind.
As Archangel Gabriel revealed in the Mystery of the Annunciation;
"Behold, you will conceive and give birth to a son, and you shall give Him the name Jesus.(Luke1:31)
Jesus human but divine soul was definitely not "created" as the Church teaches that Jesus was "begotten" not made co-substantial with the Father.
Jesus revealed that He became man in all things except sin.
St. Paul in his letter to the Philippians, we read, “Christ Jesus, though he was in the form of God, did not regard equality with God something to be grasped. Rather, he emptied himself, taking the form of a slave, coming in human likeness; and found human in appearance, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross.”
Jesus human but divine soul "pre-existed in the bosom of the Father in eternity but infusion is the same to all mankind as Archangel Gabriel also used the word "conceived/conception".
The Great Mystery is the "pre-existence" of the soul of Mary if there's an official Church doctrine that explicitly said Mary's soul pre-existed in eternity too like Jesus. If Jesus divine soul pre-existed in the bosom of the Father, does Mary "Immaculate Soul" also pre-existed in the Will/Heart of the Father in the beginning before creation time begin?
To support the reflections on Mary's soul pre-existence as the word in Ephesians1:3-5 might also includes other Prophets,Patriarchs and Saints in the list of chosen or predestined souls before the foundation of the world. Mary had to surpassed pre-destination and must prove that She is above not only to man but even to all the angels.
We know that Genesis1:3 is the start of Creation Time, when God said "LET THERE BE LIGHT".
And deciphering Genesis1:1 word "In the beginning God created the Heavens and the earth" translating this to Hebrew word is "BERESHIT BARA ELOHIM" and would reveal the Secrets of God's Divine Plan or God's Blueprint for the Salvation of Mankind.
The Hebrew word "BERESHIT BARA ELOHIM" in tetragrammaton means "The Son of the Almighty God offers His life on the Cross and the graces flowed thru the sea".
Jesus in Genesis: 1. The First Word of the Bible (YouTube)
This prove the Primacy of Jesus Humanity and pre-existence of His soul before creation time begin. But look at the mystery word "sea", when we translate this to Hebrew it would become Miryam or Mary.
Does it speak of Mary's pre-existence? lets continue..
Genesis1:2 is where Mary's presence was revealed in the prophetic mind of God.
"Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters."(Genesis1:2)
Now the word "hovers" also means "overshadowing", and the waters that the Holy Spirit is hovering is in the Pure Womb of Mary to form the Logos.
With this two passages, I embraced the reflections that Mary's "IMMACULATE SOUL" pre-existed in the Will/Heart of the Abba Father.
Genesis1:1 ; is the "Way of the Cross" offered by Jesus for the Salvation of Mankind, meaning Jesus was already crucified in the prophetic Mind of God even before the Creation Time Begin.
Genesis1:2; Is the "Mystery of the Incarnation" following the revelation that all the graces won by Jesus Christ on the Cross flowed thru the Sea or flowed thru Mary. That's why Mary is called Mediatrix of All Graces a vessel/sea.
So, this answer is Full and Complete telling the time of the soul was infused at the moment of conception and proving the Jesus and Mary's soul 'PRE-EXIST" in the beginning.
Jesus human soul "pre-existence" is at the bosom of the Father means apart or co-substantial that's why His origin was Divine.
And I remember the word of Blessed Archbishop Sheen on the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mary is God's Dream.
When God Almighty Dream, He Dream in eternity outside of time. God already possessed Mary in eternity. She is already a reality in God's Volition. But unlike Jesus, Mary was not co-substantial as "To Dream" means an object is not part of you but something you DESIRE to have.
But since God creative word cannot return to Him void (Isaiah55:11).All His creative word that was uttered from Day1 to Day6 of creation will all unfold in the fullness of time not at once as God planted seeds with the cooperation of and governance of created man.
**The Creation was finished in six days and God rested in the 7th Day.
The Divine Plan of Salvation will end also in 7 Days meaning 7,000 years as 1,000 years is only 1 Day to God.(1Peter3:8)
2,000 years God the Father RENEWED the earth with Flood. (Baptism with Water)
2,000 years God the Son RENEWED the earth with Blood. (Baptism with Blood)
2,000 years God the Holy Spirit will RENEW the earth with FIRE. (Second Pentecost/Baptism with Fire as Jesus wanted to see our Hearts already burning when He return.)
How about the 1,000 years, what is the purpose of Eucharistic Era where Satan will be chained for a thousand years?**
This is MEAT and not milk and can only be fathom by matured christian.
Brothers, I could not address you as spiritual, but as worldly—as infants in Christ. I gave you milk, not solid food, for you were not yet ready for solid food. In fact, you are still not ready,(1Corinthians3:2)