No, the Church does not have a separatist attitude toward science.
There have been periods in which, admittedly, some persons in the hierarchy of the Church have viewed the natural sciences with a certain suspicion (one thinks of the condemnation of Galileo), but such an attitude has neither been the norm nor is it compatible with Church teaching.
The most important recent Magisterial document on the relationship between faith and reason in general (including its relationship to science) is John Paul II’s Fides et ratio (FR).
The main thrust of that encyclical is that there can never be any fundamental conflict between the various uses of human reason and the contributions of faith. As the very opening words of the encyclical say,
Faith and reason are like two wings on which the human spirit rises to the contemplation of truth; and God has placed in the human heart a desire to know the truth—in a word, to know himself—so that, by knowing and loving God, men and women may also come to the fullness of truth about themselves (FR, prologue).
The fundamental reason for this is that all truth, regardless of its immediate origin, has its ultimate origin in God, who is the Truth Itself. Jesus, argues the encyclical, even declares that he is the “way, and the truth, and the life (Jn 14:6; see FR 2).
Hence what reason discovers in one field—including the sciences—cannot truly contradict what it knows through faith.
(It may interest the reader that traditionally both sciences and faith are considered habits of the intellect, that permit them to know certain things. Sciences are acquired by study, whereas faith is infused by grace. However they both modify the same faculty: the intellect. Have a look, for instance, at the Summa theologiae, I-IIae, q. 54, a. 1, responsum, where he gives the various sciences as examples of habits of the intellect; and q. 62, a. 3, in which he defines faith as a theological virtue—a “virtue” being a good habit, as opposed to a “vice”.)
A similar idea can be found in the Catechism of the Catholic Church, especially No. 159, which quotes both Vatican I’s dogmatic constitution Dei Filius (DF) and Vatican II’s pastoral constitution Gaudium et spes (GS):
“Though faith is above reason, there can never be any real discrepancy between faith and reason. Since the same God who reveals mysteries and infuses faith has bestowed the light of reason on the human mind, God cannot deny himself, nor can truth ever contradict truth” (DF 4).
“Consequently, methodical research in all branches of knowledge, provided it is carried out in a truly scientific manner and does not override moral laws, can never conflict with the faith, because the things of the world and the things of faith derive from the same God. The humble and persevering investigator of the secrets of nature is being led, as it were, by the hand of God in spite of himself, for it is God, the conserver of all things, who made them what they are” (GS 36).
Other evidence of the Church’s non-hostility to science
It is telling that these sources come from very different periods in Church history: Vatican I, at a time when the Church felt threatened by the modern world (as evidenced by Pope Pius X’s Pascendi dominici gregis quoted by Geremia, written 37 years after Vatican I), and Vatican II (as well as John Paul II’s encyclical), at a time when the Church felt called to engage the modern world. Yet they teach essentially the same idea: that all truth participates in the One Truth, who is God.
The Church has never claimed competence in scientific matters (as Dick Hartfield correctly mentions). Indeed the competency of the Magisterium as such is only in faith in morals:
And this infallibility [i.e, the infallibility of the whole Church] with which the Divine Redeemer willed His Church to be endowed in defining doctrine of faith and morals, extends as far as the deposit of Revelation extends, which must be religiously guarded and faithfully expounded (Vatican II, Lumen gentium, 25, among other references).
It is also telling that the Church has been a patron of the sciences for a long time. Many distinguished scientists in history were Catholics, among them Nicolas Copernicus, Galileo Galilei (despite his run-in with the Inquisition, he remained a Catholic to the end of his days), René Descartes, Gregor Mendel, and Louis Pasteur. What is perhaps more interesting is that many of these were clergy: Copernicus and Mendel being probably the most famous, but there are many others. To this day, the Vatican maintains an observatory in Castel Gandolfo, Italy, as well as the Pontifical Academy of Sciences.
In summary, the Church has historically taken (and continues to take) the position that there is no fundamental conflict between faith and science. Although there have been individual episodes (e.g., Galileo) in which particular scientists or particular scientific ideas have met with resistance by the Church’s hierarchy, the Church’s teaching has always been that faith and science can never truly conflict, since they both participate in the very same source of truth: namely, God.
(It is worth noting, for instance, that the Inquisition did not persecute Nicolas Copernicus for his heliocentric model; it was not considered a matter of faith or morals. What got the Inquisition’s attention with Galileo was that he proceeded to try to interpret the Scriptures based on those findings, something that the Inquisition regarded as a task for theologians—doubtless guarding their privilege too jealously. See the very well written Wikipedia article.)