In the section Origin of the creed in the article Apostles' Creed | New Advent, it states that throughout the Middle Ages it was generally believed that the Apostles, on the day of Pentecost, while still under the direct inspiration of the Holy Ghost, composed our present Creed between them, each of the Apostles contributing one of the twelve articles.
The articles then names three sources:
1) This legend dates back to the sixth century (see Pseudo-Augustine in Migne, P.L., XXXIX, 2189, and Pirminius, ibid., LXXXIX, 1034).
2) To a sermon attributed to St. Ambrose (Migne, P.L., XVII, 671; Kattenbusch, I, 81), which takes notice that the Creed was "pieced together by twelve separate workmen".
(Church teaching also references St. Ambrose Cf. CCC 194 The Apostles' Creed is so called because it is rightly considered to be a faithful summary of the apostles' faith. It is the ancient baptismal symbol of the Church of Rome. Its great authority arises from this fact: it is "the Creed of the Roman Church, the See of Peter the first of the apostles, to which he brought the common faith". [St. Ambrose, Expl. symb. 7: PL 17,1196.])
3) To Rufinus (Migne, P.L., XXI, 337) c. 400,
The article then goes on to show why it regards the circumstantial narrative of Rufinus as unhistorical.
That leaves sources 1) and 2) and I started to wonder whether there were other sources for the belief in Catholicism that the Apostles composed the articles present in the Apostles' Creed between them, with each of the Apostles contributing one of the articles.
Are there other sources for the belief in Catholicism that the Apostles composed the present articles in the Apostles' Creed between them, with each of the Apostles contributing an article?