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If evolution is true, then the Bible’s account of the creation of the first man, Adam (Genesis 1:26–27; 2:18–24), would be, at best, a story meant to teach a moral lesson but not intended to be taken literally.

Given that the Catholic Church appears to take a "theistic evolution" position, does it (and if it does, where does it) formally teach that Jesus in fact held that belief?

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There's certainly no reason Jesus couldn't have used the story of Creation for teaching purposes even if He had been a theistic evolutionist—that's why everything in the Bible is there. But there's nothing in Catholic teaching even insisting that theistic evolution is correct, let alone stating what Jesus' belief on the subject was. The Catechism of the Catholic Church specifically states that Jesus did not know anything that did not directly relate to his relationship with the Father and the Spirit, and the Divine plan of salvation, except what a human being of his time and location would be able to know, and what he could gain in knowledge of others by his ability to read their hearts:

This human soul that the Son of God assumed is endowed with a true human knowledge. As such, this knowledge could not in itself be unlimited: it was exercised in the historical conditions of his existence in space and time. This is why the Son of God could, when he became man, "increase in wisdom and in stature, and in favor with God and man" and would even have to inquire for himself about what one in the human condition can learn only from experience. This corresponded to the reality of his voluntary emptying of himself, taking "the form of a slave."

But at the same time, this truly human knowledge of God's Son expressed the divine life of his person. "The human nature of God’s Son, not by itself but by its union with the Word, knew and showed forth in itself everything that pertains to God." Such is first of all the case with the intimate and immediate knowledge that the Son of God made man has of his Father. The Son in his human knowledge also showed the divine penetration he had into the secret thoughts of human hearts.

By its union to the divine wisdom in the person of the Word incarnate, Christ enjoyed in his human knowledge the fullness of understanding of the eternal plans he had come to reveal. What he admitted to not knowing in this area, he elsewhere declared himself not sent to reveal.

(Catechism of the Catholic Church, paragraphs 472–74)

It would thus appear that the Catholic Church believes that Jesus did not know the truth of theistic evolution. What he believed about it, if indeed he held a belief about it, is not stated anywhere; but it appears likely from the phrasing of these paragraphs that even if Jesus ever thought about it, he was probably (as others of that time and background were probably) less likely to believe it true than to believe that the Genesis story, taken literally, was true.

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