1 Does Jesus ever claim to be God?
2 Does Jesus ever claim to be the son of God?
There are many ideas about who Jesus is. We can see what the bible says and then compare that to those differing ideas.
#1 No, Jesus never claimed to be God. Naturally there must be some verses that suggest this, but none of them are from Jesus. It is always others who have given us fuel for the, 'Jesus is God', idea.
The premier answer here with a whopping 57 points (!) gives us some verses that point in this direction. Let's look at these and see if they stack up.
A >John 8:58 "Before Abraham was, I am"
Many assume two things from this verse. 1-Jesus says, 'I am'. This is supposed to be Jesus calling himself God because God /Yahweh used a similar term before the Exodus from Egypt. God is recorded in Hebrew, John is writing in Greek. There are other uses of 'ἐγώ εἰμι' ('I am') by people certainly not claiming to be God. 2- If we assume that because Jesus is 'before Abraham', it must mean Jesus pre-existed Abraham, and is therefore God. We find a good clue in Gal 3:16
The promises were spoken to Abraham and to his seed. Scripture does not say "and to seeds," meaning many people, but "and to your seed," meaning one person, who is Christ.
So now we see that Jesus is the descendant of Abraham and cannot be before him in a timeline. So what does 'before' indicate?
There are many verse that show Jesus as being the very core of God's plan for man - not just man's salvation, but the whole purpose for his existence. Not wanting to digress into a longer than needed answer, here is a link to explain this more. https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/questions/52838/what-does-through-him-mean-in-romans-1136/52852#52852
The point is that 'before Abraham' does not prove anything about Jesus being God.
B >Matthew 9:1-7 Short story - Jesus healed someone and said, 'Your sins are forgiven'. So the rationale is that this must make Jesus God!
Not so fast. All we need to do is read on to v8.
When the crowds saw this, they were awestruck, and glorified God, who had given such authority to men.
who is the 'man' the verse refers to? Jesus! We know Jesus always said he could do nothing of himself - it was always the Father doing His works through Jesus. Why were they awestruck? Not b/c Jesus said he was God, but b/c they honoured God who did a miracle through Jesus! (a 'man' as Matthew tells us) Let's see another where Jesus is talking to the disciples/apostles.
John 20:23 If you forgive anyone’s sins, their sins are forgiven; if you do not forgive them, they are not forgiven.
Should we deduce that the Apostles are God too? Because Jesus gave them authority - just as God has given Jesus authority over sin and the eventual penalty of it.
And He (God) has given Him (Jesus) authority to execute judgment, because He is the Son of Man. John 5:27
He (God) will judge the world in righteousness through a Man whom He has appointed.
All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Matt 28:18
These last two references are after Jesus was raised from the dead, but he is still a man - none of them make him God, but insist that he is not God as God is doing the appointing and the giving of these abilities. Why would God give such things to Himself? Wouldn't He already have them? Remember, Jesus is now exalted and still he is being given such things!
C >John 20:28 And Thomas answered and said unto him, My Lord and my God.
Note 2 Cor 4:4
The god of this age has blinded the minds of unbelievers, so that they cannot see the light of the gospel that displays the glory of Christ, who is the image of God.
Who is the 'god of this world'? The Devil or Satan. Same Gr. word used of Jesus in John 20:28
So by that logic, Satan must be God too!
Why is Thomas calling Jesus a god? Thomas believed Jesus was dead! He knew that God was immortal from the scriptures - Could his God die? The disciples knew that God was their 'Father'.
Philip said to Him, “Lord, show us the Father, and it is enough for us.” 9 Jesus said to him, “Have I been so long with you, and yet you have not come to know Me, Philip? He who has seen Me has seen the Father. John 14:8-9
Seeing the Father or God has nothing to do with the eyes. "you have not come to know Me" Jesus said - if they knew him, they would know the Father. Thomas finally got it when Jesus proved who he was - raised from the dead, he caught up real quick - knowing who Jesus really was, and through Jesus, knowing the Father God too! Not b/c Jesus was God, but b/c he represented God as he had said consistently whenever he spoke of his Father.
I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.
If we think Jesus is God, them now we have two Gods! Because Jesus also has a God. This is the risen Jesus speaking, the Jesus given life eternal that he didn't have before - and he still has a God! The same Jesus given the Holy Spirit at baptism - God doesn't have His own Spirit? Jesus is either God or he is not - he never said he was, and always pointed to the Father as God.
That will have to do - they are many more verses used to suggest Jesus is God, but like these ones discussed, they are all explained better in context and concert with other verses that show their true and intended meaning. When we examine the text exegetically we will see the truth preserved for us.
2 Does Jesus ever claim to be the son of God?
do you say of Him, whom the Father sanctified and sent into the world, ‘You are blaspheming,’ because I said, ‘I am the Son of God’? John 10:36
Mostly it is others who testify that Jesus is God's son - His unique son that never sinned - made prefect by obedient suffering to be the Lamb of God - to take away all sin and defeat death itself.
Luke 1:35 And the angel answered her, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be called holy—the Son of God.
Matthew 16:16 Simon Peter replied, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.”
Jesus, being the son of God, does not make him God. If he were, there is no clear expression of this matter by himself, his Father, the prophets or his disciples/apostles - either before his birth or after his ascension. All these speak of the man Jesus - and quite clearly at that.