As with all Scripture it is not possible to take only a part of Jesus teachings alone and understand Salvation, but all of his teachings are a part of gaining access to the Kingdom. Otherwise Jesus would not have taken three years to bring his message to us.
Beginning with the Parable of the sower let us see if we can determine the course for attaining the Kingdom.
As Jesus said this is about people's reception of the word, and does not really speak to whether or not they received salvation.
Now the parable is this, &c] "Or this is the sense of the parable", as the Arabic version renders it: "the seed is the word of God", the Gospel, as preached by Christ, his apostles, and faithful ministers, which has God for its author, is concerning the grace of God, and is what he blesses, and makes effectual to answer any good purpose.
Those by the wayside are they that hear,.... The word of God, though only by accident, and very carelessly, and without understanding what they hear:
then cometh the devil; signified by the fowls of the air:
and taketh away the word out of their hearts, or memories; that little of it, which is retained there, and diverts their minds from it by other objects; so that they quite forget what they have heard;
lest they should believe, and be saved: this clause is only in Luke; and with it may be compared 2Co 4:4 for with true faith in Christ the sum and substance of the word salvation is connected; and Satan being an enemy to the salvation of souls, does all he can to hinder their faith in him.
They on the rock are they, which when they hear,.... The seed that fell upon the rock, or stony ground, signify such sort of hearers,
who receive the word with joy. The Ethiopic version reads, "with joy of heart". But, this sort of hearers receive not the word into their hearts, or with their hearts believe it, and from their hearts obey it, only into their heads; and have only, an historical faith of it; nor with hearty, spiritual, solid joy, or joy in the Holy Ghost: for their hearts remain like a rock, unbroken by the word; but with a flash of natural affection, which quickly goes off.
And these have no root; neither "in themselves", as the other evangelists say, they have no true grace in them; nor have they any root in Christ, nor in the love of God:
which for a while believe: their faith is a temporary one, like that of Simon Magus; which shows it is not true faith; for that is an abiding grace, Christ, who is the author, is the finisher of it, and prays for it, that it fail not. The Persic version renders it, "in the time of hearing they have faith"; and such sort of hearers there are, who, whilst they are hearing, assent to what they hear, but when they are gone, either forget it, or, falling into bad company, are prevailed upon to doubt of it, and disbelieve it. The Arabic version renders it, "they believe for a small time"; their faith do not continue long, nor their profession of it, both are soon dropped:
and in the time of temptation fall away: "or go back", as the Vulgate Latin version, they draw back unto perdition; or "forsake that", as the Arabic version reads, the word, they have heard, and received, their faith in it, and profession of it: "and soon become apostates", as the Persic version renders it. By "the time of temptation", is not meant any particular and sore temptation of Satan, but a time of affliction and persecution, as appears from the other evangelists; which is a trying time to professors of religion, and when those who have not the root of the matter in them, fall away.
And that which fell among thorns are they,.... The seed that fell among thorns, or were sown on thorny ground, represent such hearers:
which, when they have heard, go forth; from hearing the word to their worldly business; or go on in the pursuit of their worldly lusts and pleasures notwithstanding; for the word translated, "go forth", belongs to the next clause;
and are choked with cares and riches, and pleasures of this life; and with it to be read thus, "and going on in or under", that is, under the power and influence of, "the cares, and riches, and pleasures of life", they are choked; to which agrees the Arabic version, which renders it, "in which they walk", or "which they follow". The Vulgate Latin version is, "and from the cares, and riches, and pleasures of life, going, they are choked": but it is not going from them, but going on in them, which chokes them, or suffocates the word they have heard, whereby it becomes of no effect; unless it should be rendered, "by the cares", c. "they are choked, and bring no fruit to perfection" for what fruit such hearers do bring forth, in a way of profession, soon drops off, and perishes.
But that on the good ground are they,.... The seed that fell on good ground design such hearers,
which in an honest and good heart, having heard the word, keep it: who hear with an honest and good intention, and faithfully keep it, and hold it fast:
and bring forth fruit with patience; with great constancy, suffering much for the sake of it; and the more they suffer, the more fruitful they are.
From Jesus explanation and by dissecting them with the use of these two plus other commentaries we see that it is not just the hearing of the word and the mulling it over in the mind that establishes salvation, but heartfelt acceptance of the fact that Jesus did in fact pay our penalty of death and that that left us sinless. Jesus' explanation of the reception of the word does not tell us where the dividing line between salvation and not being saved intersects the narrative. For instance we do not know whether those who gleefully accept the word and then fall away have received salvation or not. Jesus' sacrifice paid for all the sins of those who receive him, but we do not know if those people will join us in Heaven or not, only Jesus can make that determination.
There are far too many Scriptures dealing with Salvation to enumerate them here, and even Jesus' teachings would turn this into a book. One verse which seems to be quite cogent here though is:
But that does not say they will be denied the Kingdom only that they are not worthy. and another of Jesus' teachings tells us:
the full answer to your question lies in the Gospels themselves, what opinion any group or individual may have concerning Salvation, is of little value, but how you accept the Gospel is of paramount importance since only Jesus' judgment has any eternal value.
Hope this helps.