Are there one or two covenants in Exodus? Clarifying the role of the first set of laws compared to the second set.
The covenant with Israel
Exodus 19:5-8 Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and
keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above
all people: for all the earth is mine: And ye shall be unto me a
kingdom of priests, and an holy nation. These are the words which thou
shalt speak unto the children of Israel. And Moses came and called
for the elders of the people, and laid before their faces all these
words which the LORD commanded him. And all the people answered
together, and said, All that the LORD hath spoken we will do. And
Moses returned the words of the people unto the LORD.
The covenant ratified
Exodus 24:7 And he took the book of the covenant, and read in the
audience of the people: and they said, All that the LORD hath said
will we do, and be obedient. And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled
it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which
the LORD hath made with you concerning all these words.
Exodus 24:12 And the LORD said unto Moses, Come up to me into the
mount, and be there: and I will give thee tables of stone, and a law,
and commandments which I have written; that thou mayest teach them.
Exodus 25:21 And thou shalt put the mercy seat above upon the ark;
and in the ark thou shalt put the testimony that I shall give thee.
Exodus 31:18 And he gave unto Moses, when he had made an end of
communing with him upon mount Sinai, two tables of testimony, tables
of stone, written with the finger of God.
Exodus 32:15-16 And Moses turned, and went down from the mount, and
the two tables of the testimony were in his hand: the tables were
written on both their sides; on the one side and on the other were
they written. And the tables were the work of God, and the writing
was the writing of God, graven upon the tables.
Exodus 32:19 And it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the
camp, that he saw the calf, and the dancing: and Moses' anger waxed
hot, and he cast the tables out of his hands, and brake them beneath
Exodus 34:1 And the LORD said unto Moses, Hew thee two tables of
stone like unto the first: and I will write upon these tables the
words that were in the first tables, which thou brakest.
Exodus 34:28-29 And he was there with the LORD forty days and forty
nights; he did neither eat bread, nor drink water. And he wrote upon
the tables the words of the covenant, the ten commandments. And it
came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two
tables of testimony in Moses' hand, when he came down from the mount,
that Moses wist not that the skin of his face shone while he talked
It may be possible that what was written on the tablets were the entire law (600+) laws including the ten specific commandments.
It may be that the tablets had just the ten commandments as a representation of the entire law.
It may be that Moses wrote down the additional laws and God wrote the second copy of the ten commandments.
However, there is only one law (of which the ten commandments are part). There is only one covenant that was established by the nation accepting and being sprinkled with blood.
Jeremiah foretold of a new covenant for Israel.
Jeremiah 31:31 Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will
make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of
Jesus offered this covenant to Israel.
Matthew 26:28 For this is my blood of the new testament, which is
shed for many for the remission of sins.
There was one covenant with Israel and there will be a new covenant.
Revelation 1:7 Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see
him, and they also which pierced him: and all kindreds of the earth
shall wail because of him. Even so, Amen.
Isaiah 66:8 Who hath heard such a thing? who hath seen such things?
Shall the earth be made to bring forth in one day? or shall a nation
be born at once? for as soon as Zion travailed, she brought forth her