In the book of Job, it is stated many times that Satan questioned (in His presence) the righteousness of God's servant Job and challenged Him to put Job to the test. Does this imply that Satan can withstand in the presence of God and can freely talk to Him at any time?
There is much we do not know about the Spiritual Realm, but there are some things that we can ascertain from Scripture. As a Southern Baptist I believe that the Bible is the true and inerrant word of God and should be taken literally. And so let us start where your question begins:
Job 1:6 KJV Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them.
there are two things we learn from this Scripture.
The sons of God presented themselves.
Satan was among them.
This is an obvious reference to the Angels, and we know that Satan is an Angel even though a fallen one. And since God reigns in a Spiritual realm we cannot know what presenting themselves before God actually means. However, it would not appear to be similar to a pass in revue as in the Military.
So let's see if we can find some guidance as to what that actually does mean. Our first clue comes from the next verse in Job.
Job 1:7 KJV And the LORD said unto Satan, Whence comest thou? Then Satan answered the LORD, and said, From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it.
Since it is common belief; at least among Southern Baptist, that God is omniscient, why did God ask Satan where he had been? Looking at this in view of verse 6 we might derive that this was a time when all of Gods Angels were giving an account of their activities.
But does that mean that they were standing in front of the throne during this exchange?
This Scripture tells us that God can hear us while in Heaven even though we are not in Heaven ourselves.
1st Kings 8:30 KJV And hearken thou to the supplication of thy servant, and of thy people Israel, when they shall pray toward this place: and hear thou in heaven thy dwelling place: and when thou hearest, forgive.
And this Scripture tells us that God can speak to us any time and anywhere he so desires.
Deuteronomy 4:36 KJV Out of heaven he made thee to hear his voice, that he might instruct thee: and upon earth he shewed thee his great fire; and thou heardest his words out of the midst of the fire.
So to my simple mind God can have an exchange with anyone or anything anywhere in his creation any time he so desires.